The human gut microbiome is a huge microbial community that plays an irreplaceable role in human life. With the further development of research, the influence of intestinal flora on human diseases has been gradually excavated. Gut microbiota (GM) dysbiosis has adverse health effects on the human body that will lead to a variety of chronic diseases. The underlying mechanisms of GM on human diseases are incredibly complicated. This review focuses on the regulation and mechanism of GM on neurodegenerative diseases, cardiovascular diseases, metabolic diseases and gastrointestinal diseases, thus providing a potential target for the prevention and treatment of disease.