Appropriate Use of Short-Course #Antibiotics in Common #Infections: Best Practice Advice From the American College of Physicians

Antimicrobial overuse is a major health care issue that contributes to antibiotic resistance. Such overuse includes unnecessarily long durations of antibiotic therapy in patients with common bacterial infections, such as acute bronchitis with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbation, community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), urinary tract infections (UTIs), and cellulitis. This article describes best practices for prescribing appropriate and short-duration antibiotic therapy for patients presenting with these … Continue reading Appropriate Use of Short-Course #Antibiotics in Common #Infections: Best Practice Advice From the American College of Physicians

Rate This

Empiric #antibiotics for community-acquired #pneumonia in adult patients: a systematic review and a network meta-analysis

The main aim of this network meta-analysis is to identify the empiric antibiotic (Em-ATB) with the highest probability of being the best (HPBB) in terms of (1) cure rate and (2) mortality rate in hospitalised patients with community acquired pneumonia (CAP) . Method Inclusion criteria: (1) adult patients (>16 years old) diagnosed with CAP that required hospitalisation; (2) randomised to at least two different Em-ATBs, (3) … Continue reading Empiric #antibiotics for community-acquired #pneumonia in adult patients: a systematic review and a network meta-analysis

Rate This

#Cotrimoxazole prophylaxis prevents major infective episodes in patients with systemic #lupus erythematosus on immunosuppressants: A non-concurrent cohort study

Prophylactic trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) prevents pneumocystis jirovecii infection in SLE on immunosuppression. Its role in preventing other major infections in immuno suppressed SLE patients is unknown. Methods A non-concurrent cohort study was conducted on patients of SLE fulfilling SLICC and/or ACR 1997 criteria, who received tapering dose of steroid starting with ≥0.5 mg/kg/day of prednisolone or equivalent dose of deflazacort and mycophenolate mofetil ≥1 g/day (or equivalent dose … Continue reading #Cotrimoxazole prophylaxis prevents major infective episodes in patients with systemic #lupus erythematosus on immunosuppressants: A non-concurrent cohort study

Rate This

Short-Course #Antimicrobial Therapy for Pediatric Community-Acquired #Pneumonia The SAFER Randomized Clinical Trial

Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a common occurrence in childhood; consequently, evidence-based recommendations for its treatment are required. Objective To determine whether 5 days of high-dose amoxicillin for CAP was associated with noninferior rates of clinical cure compared with 10 days of high-dose amoxicillin. Design, Setting, and Participants The SAFER (Short-Course Antimicrobial Therapy for Pediatric Respiratory Infections) study was a 2-center, parallel-group, noninferiority randomized clinical trial … Continue reading Short-Course #Antimicrobial Therapy for Pediatric Community-Acquired #Pneumonia The SAFER Randomized Clinical Trial

Rate This

#Antibiotic exposure during pregnancy and childhood #asthma: a national birth cohort study investigating timing of exposure and mode of delivery

…A total of 5522 (17%) children were born to mothers exposed to antibiotics during pregnancy. In adjusted analyses, children born to exposed mothers had higher odds of asthma (OR 1.14, 95% CI 1.05 to 1.24). There was no association with antibiotic exposure in the first trimester (OR 1.02, 95% CI 0.83 to 1.26), but higher odds were observed for antibiotic exposure in the second to … Continue reading #Antibiotic exposure during pregnancy and childhood #asthma: a national birth cohort study investigating timing of exposure and mode of delivery

Rate This

Impact of Inappropriate #Antibiotic Therapy in Vancomycin-Resistant #Enterococcus Bacteremia

Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE) bacteremia has significant morbidity and mortality. Empiric antibiotic regimens for treating patients with risk factors for multidrug-resistant organisms may not have medications directed at treating VRE.. ..The inpatient, 30-day, and 1-year mortality rates from VRE bacteremia were 23%, 31%, and 59%, respectively. Only 19% patients were discharged home. Inappropriate antibiotics were prescribed in 19% patients. Appropriate antibiotics were prescribed in 81% patients … Continue reading Impact of Inappropriate #Antibiotic Therapy in Vancomycin-Resistant #Enterococcus Bacteremia

Rate This

Gut #microbiota depletion by chronic #antibiotic treatment alters the sleep/wake architecture and #sleep EEG power spectra in mice

Dysbiosis of the gut microbiota affects physiological processes, including brain functions, by altering the intestinal metabolism. Here we examined the effects of the gut microbiota on sleep/wake regulation. C57BL/6 male mice were treated with broad-spectrum antibiotics for 4 weeks to deplete their gut microbiota. Metabolome profiling of cecal contents in antibiotic-induced microbiota-depleted (AIMD) and control mice showed significant variations in the metabolism of amino acids … Continue reading Gut #microbiota depletion by chronic #antibiotic treatment alters the sleep/wake architecture and #sleep EEG power spectra in mice

Rate This

Gut #microbiota depletion by chronic antibiotic treatment alters the #sleep/wake architecture and sleep #EEG power spectra in mice

Dysbiosis of the gut microbiota affects physiological processes, including brain functions, by altering the intestinal metabolism. Here we examined the effects of the gut microbiota on sleep/wake regulation. C57BL/6 male mice were treated with broad-spectrum antibiotics for 4 weeks to deplete their gut microbiota. Metabolome profiling of cecal contents in antibiotic-induced microbiota-depleted (AIMD) and control mice showed significant variations in the metabolism of amino acids … Continue reading Gut #microbiota depletion by chronic antibiotic treatment alters the #sleep/wake architecture and sleep #EEG power spectra in mice

Rate This

A Randomized Trial Comparing #Antibiotics with Appendectomy for #Appendicitis

..In total, 1552 adults (414 with an appendicolith) underwent randomization; 776 were assigned to receive antibiotics (47% of whom were not hospitalized for the index treatment) and 776 to undergo appendectomy (96% of whom underwent a laparoscopic procedure). Antibiotics were noninferior to appendectomy on the basis of 30-day EQ-5D scores (mean difference, 0.01 points; 95% confidence interval [CI], −0.001 to 0.03). In the antibiotics group, … Continue reading A Randomized Trial Comparing #Antibiotics with Appendectomy for #Appendicitis

Rate This

Co‐occurrence of #antibiotic, biocide, and heavy #metal resistance genes in bacteria from metal and radionuclide contaminated soils at the Savannah River Site

Contaminants such as heavy metals may contribute to the dissemination of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) by enriching resistance gene determinants via co‐selection mechanisms. In the present study, a survey was performed on soils collected from four areas at the Savannah River Site (SRS), South Carolina, USA, with varying contaminant profiles: relatively pristine (Upper Three Runs), heavy metals (Ash Basins), radionuclides (Pond B) and heavy metal and … Continue reading Co‐occurrence of #antibiotic, biocide, and heavy #metal resistance genes in bacteria from metal and radionuclide contaminated soils at the Savannah River Site

Rate This

Reducing #Antibiotic Prescribing in Primary Care for #Respiratory Illness

One-third of outpatient antibiotic prescriptions for pediatric acute respiratory tract infections (ARTIs) are inappropriate. We evaluated a distance learning program’s effectiveness for reducing outpatient antibiotic prescribing for ARTI visits.. In this stepped-wedge clinical trial run from November 2015 to June 2018, we randomly assigned 19 pediatric practices belonging to the Pediatric Research in Office Settings Network or the NorthShore University HealthSystem to 4 wedges. Visits … Continue reading Reducing #Antibiotic Prescribing in Primary Care for #Respiratory Illness

Rate This

Association of Nonoperative Management Using Antibiotic Therapy vs Laparoscopic #Appendectomy With Treatment Success and Disability Days in Children With Uncomplicated #Appendicitis

Nonoperative management with antibiotics alone has the potential to treat uncomplicated pediatric appendicitis with fewer disability days than surgery.. ..Patient and family selection of nonoperative management with antibiotics alone (nonoperative group, n = 370) or urgent (≤12 hours of admission) laparoscopic appendectomy (surgery group, n = 698). Main Outcomes and Measures The 2 primary outcomes assessed at 1 year were disability days, defined as the total number of days … Continue reading Association of Nonoperative Management Using Antibiotic Therapy vs Laparoscopic #Appendectomy With Treatment Success and Disability Days in Children With Uncomplicated #Appendicitis

Rate This