#Antibiotic exposure during pregnancy and childhood #asthma: a national birth cohort study investigating timing of exposure and mode of delivery

…A total of 5522 (17%) children were born to mothers exposed to antibiotics during pregnancy. In adjusted analyses, children born to exposed mothers had higher odds of asthma (OR 1.14, 95% CI 1.05 to 1.24). There was no association with antibiotic exposure in the first trimester (OR 1.02, 95% CI 0.83 to 1.26), but higher odds were observed for antibiotic exposure in the second to … Continue reading #Antibiotic exposure during pregnancy and childhood #asthma: a national birth cohort study investigating timing of exposure and mode of delivery

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Impact of Inappropriate #Antibiotic Therapy in Vancomycin-Resistant #Enterococcus Bacteremia

Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE) bacteremia has significant morbidity and mortality. Empiric antibiotic regimens for treating patients with risk factors for multidrug-resistant organisms may not have medications directed at treating VRE.. ..The inpatient, 30-day, and 1-year mortality rates from VRE bacteremia were 23%, 31%, and 59%, respectively. Only 19% patients were discharged home. Inappropriate antibiotics were prescribed in 19% patients. Appropriate antibiotics were prescribed in 81% patients … Continue reading Impact of Inappropriate #Antibiotic Therapy in Vancomycin-Resistant #Enterococcus Bacteremia

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Gut #microbiota depletion by chronic #antibiotic treatment alters the sleep/wake architecture and #sleep EEG power spectra in mice

Dysbiosis of the gut microbiota affects physiological processes, including brain functions, by altering the intestinal metabolism. Here we examined the effects of the gut microbiota on sleep/wake regulation. C57BL/6 male mice were treated with broad-spectrum antibiotics for 4 weeks to deplete their gut microbiota. Metabolome profiling of cecal contents in antibiotic-induced microbiota-depleted (AIMD) and control mice showed significant variations in the metabolism of amino acids … Continue reading Gut #microbiota depletion by chronic #antibiotic treatment alters the sleep/wake architecture and #sleep EEG power spectra in mice

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Gut #microbiota depletion by chronic antibiotic treatment alters the #sleep/wake architecture and sleep #EEG power spectra in mice

Dysbiosis of the gut microbiota affects physiological processes, including brain functions, by altering the intestinal metabolism. Here we examined the effects of the gut microbiota on sleep/wake regulation. C57BL/6 male mice were treated with broad-spectrum antibiotics for 4 weeks to deplete their gut microbiota. Metabolome profiling of cecal contents in antibiotic-induced microbiota-depleted (AIMD) and control mice showed significant variations in the metabolism of amino acids … Continue reading Gut #microbiota depletion by chronic antibiotic treatment alters the #sleep/wake architecture and sleep #EEG power spectra in mice

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A Randomized Trial Comparing #Antibiotics with Appendectomy for #Appendicitis

..In total, 1552 adults (414 with an appendicolith) underwent randomization; 776 were assigned to receive antibiotics (47% of whom were not hospitalized for the index treatment) and 776 to undergo appendectomy (96% of whom underwent a laparoscopic procedure). Antibiotics were noninferior to appendectomy on the basis of 30-day EQ-5D scores (mean difference, 0.01 points; 95% confidence interval [CI], −0.001 to 0.03). In the antibiotics group, … Continue reading A Randomized Trial Comparing #Antibiotics with Appendectomy for #Appendicitis

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Co‐occurrence of #antibiotic, biocide, and heavy #metal resistance genes in bacteria from metal and radionuclide contaminated soils at the Savannah River Site

Contaminants such as heavy metals may contribute to the dissemination of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) by enriching resistance gene determinants via co‐selection mechanisms. In the present study, a survey was performed on soils collected from four areas at the Savannah River Site (SRS), South Carolina, USA, with varying contaminant profiles: relatively pristine (Upper Three Runs), heavy metals (Ash Basins), radionuclides (Pond B) and heavy metal and … Continue reading Co‐occurrence of #antibiotic, biocide, and heavy #metal resistance genes in bacteria from metal and radionuclide contaminated soils at the Savannah River Site

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Reducing #Antibiotic Prescribing in Primary Care for #Respiratory Illness

One-third of outpatient antibiotic prescriptions for pediatric acute respiratory tract infections (ARTIs) are inappropriate. We evaluated a distance learning program’s effectiveness for reducing outpatient antibiotic prescribing for ARTI visits.. In this stepped-wedge clinical trial run from November 2015 to June 2018, we randomly assigned 19 pediatric practices belonging to the Pediatric Research in Office Settings Network or the NorthShore University HealthSystem to 4 wedges. Visits … Continue reading Reducing #Antibiotic Prescribing in Primary Care for #Respiratory Illness

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Association of Nonoperative Management Using Antibiotic Therapy vs Laparoscopic #Appendectomy With Treatment Success and Disability Days in Children With Uncomplicated #Appendicitis

Nonoperative management with antibiotics alone has the potential to treat uncomplicated pediatric appendicitis with fewer disability days than surgery.. ..Patient and family selection of nonoperative management with antibiotics alone (nonoperative group, n = 370) or urgent (≤12 hours of admission) laparoscopic appendectomy (surgery group, n = 698). Main Outcomes and Measures The 2 primary outcomes assessed at 1 year were disability days, defined as the total number of days … Continue reading Association of Nonoperative Management Using Antibiotic Therapy vs Laparoscopic #Appendectomy With Treatment Success and Disability Days in Children With Uncomplicated #Appendicitis

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High-Fat Diet and Antibiotics Cooperatively Impair Mitochondrial Bioenergetics to Trigger #Dysbiosis that Exacerbates Pre-inflammatory Bowel Disease

The clinical spectra of irritable bowel syndrome (#IBS) and inflammatory bowel disease (#IBD) intersect to form a scantily defined overlap syndrome, termed pre-IBD. We show that increased Enterobacteriaceae and reduced Clostridia abundance distinguish the fecal microbiota of pre-IBD patients from IBS patients. A history of antibiotics in individuals consuming a high-fat diet was associated with the greatest risk for pre-IBD. Exposing mice to these risk … Continue reading High-Fat Diet and Antibiotics Cooperatively Impair Mitochondrial Bioenergetics to Trigger #Dysbiosis that Exacerbates Pre-inflammatory Bowel Disease

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Antibiotic Use and Outcomes in Children in the Emergency Department With Suspected #Pneumonia

Antibiotic therapy is often prescribed for suspected community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in children despite a lack of knowledge of causative pathogen. Our objective in this study was to investigate the association between antibiotic prescription and treatment failure in children with suspected CAP who are discharged from the hospital emergency department (ED).. ..Of 337 eligible children, 294 were matched on the basis of propensity score. There was … Continue reading Antibiotic Use and Outcomes in Children in the Emergency Department With Suspected #Pneumonia

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Pharmacologic Therapies in Patients With Exacerbation of Chronic #Obstructive #Pulmonary Disease: A Systematic Review With Meta-analysis

..Compared with placebo or management without antibiotics, antibiotics given for 3 to 14 days were associated with increased exacerbation resolution at the end of the intervention (odds ratio [OR], 2.03 [95% CI, 1.47 to 2.80]; moderate SOE) and less treatment failure at the end of the intervention (OR, 0.54 [CI, 0.34 to 0.86]; moderate SOE), independent of severity of exacerbations in out- and inpatients. Compared … Continue reading Pharmacologic Therapies in Patients With Exacerbation of Chronic #Obstructive #Pulmonary Disease: A Systematic Review With Meta-analysis

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Antibiotic prescribing without documented indication in ambulatory care clinics: national cross sectional study

… According to the criteria, 57% (52% to 62%) of the 130.5 million prescriptions were for appropriate indications, 25% (21% to 29%) were inappropriate, and 18% (15% to 22%) had no documented indication. This corresponds to an estimated 24 million prescriptions without a documented indication. Being an adult male, spending more time with the provider, and seeing a non-primary care specialist were significantly positively associated … Continue reading Antibiotic prescribing without documented indication in ambulatory care clinics: national cross sectional study

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