Serum folate deficiency and the risks of dementia and all-cause mortality: a national study of old age

The association between serum folate deficiency and the risk of dementia in old age is unclear, perhaps owing to small sample sizes, the competing risk of mortality or reverse causation. Objective To examine the associations between serum folate deficiency and the risks of incident dementia and all-cause mortality in a large national sample of older …

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The Foegen effect A mechanism by which facemasks contribute to the COVID-19 case fatality rate

Extensive evidence in the literature supports the mandatory use of facemasks to reduce the infection rate of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, which causes the coronavirus disease (COVID-19). However, the effect of mask use on the disease course remains controversial. This study aimed to determine whether mandatory mask use influenced the case fatality rate …

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Estimating excess mortality due to the COVID-19 pandemic: a systematic analysis of COVID-19-related mortality, 2020–21

BackgroundMortality statistics are fundamental to public health decision making. Mortality varies by time and location, and its measurement is affected by well known biases that have been exacerbated during the COVID-19 pandemic. This paper aims to estimate excess mortality from the COVID-19 pandemic in 191 countries and territories, and 252 subnational units for selected countries, …

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Muscle-strengthening activities are associated with lower risk and mortality in major non-communicable diseases: a systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies

Objective To quantify the associations between muscle-strengthening activities and the risk of non-communicable diseases and mortality in adults independent of aerobic activities. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. Data sources MEDLINE and Embase were searched from inception to June 2021 and the reference lists of all related articles were reviewed. Eligibility criteria …

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A LITERATURE REVIEW AND META-ANALYSISOF THE EFFECTS OF LOCKDOWNS ONCOVID-19 MORTALITY

This systematic review and meta-analysis are designed to determine whether there is empiricalevidence to support the belief that “lockdowns” reduce COVID-19 mortality. Lockdowns aredefined as the imposition of at least one compulsory, non-pharmaceutical intervention (NPI).NPIs are any government mandate that directly restrict peoples’ possibilities, such as policies thatlimit internal movement, close schools and businesses, and …

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