Cross-kingdom inhibition of bacterial virulence and communication by probiotic #yeast metabolites

Probiotic milk-fermented microorganism mixtures (e.g., yogurt, kefir) are perceived as contributing to human health, and possibly capable of protecting against bacterial infections. Co-existence of probiotic microorganisms are likely maintained via complex biomolecular mechanisms, secreted metabolites mediating cell-cell communication, and other yet-unknown biochemical pathways. In particular, deciphering molecular mechanisms by which probiotic microorganisms inhibit proliferation of pathogenic bacteria would be highly important for understanding both the … Continue reading Cross-kingdom inhibition of bacterial virulence and communication by probiotic #yeast metabolites

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The gut #mycobiome of healthy mice is shaped by the environment and correlates with metabolic outcomes in response to #diet

As an active interface between the host and their diet, the gut microbiota influences host metabolic adaptation; however, the contributions of fungi have been overlooked. Here, we investigate whether variations in gut mycobiome abundance and composition correlate with key features of host metabolism. We obtained animals from four commercial sources in parallel to test if differing starting mycobiomes can shape host adaptation in response to … Continue reading The gut #mycobiome of healthy mice is shaped by the environment and correlates with metabolic outcomes in response to #diet

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#Diet, Exercise, Lifestyle, and Mental #Distress among Young and Mature Men and Women: A Repeated Cross-Sectional Study

Customization of mental health therapies needs to consider the differences in degree of brain maturity between young (18–29 years) and mature (30 years or older) adults as well as brain morphology among men and women. The aim of this study was to identify the significant dietary and lifestyle contributors to mental distress in these sub-populations. Independent repeated cross-sectional sampling was performed for over a 5-year … Continue reading #Diet, Exercise, Lifestyle, and Mental #Distress among Young and Mature Men and Women: A Repeated Cross-Sectional Study

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Self- Monitoring via Digital Health in #Weight Loss Interventions: A Systematic Review Among Adults with Overweight or #Obesity

Objective: Self- monitoring is a core component of behavioral obesity treatment, but it is unknown how digital health has been used for self- monitoring, what engagement rates are achieved in these interven-tions, and how self- monitoring and weight loss are related. Methods: This systematic review examined digital self- monitoring in behavioral weight loss interventions among adults with overweight or obesity. Six databases (PubMed, Embase, Scopus, … Continue reading Self- Monitoring via Digital Health in #Weight Loss Interventions: A Systematic Review Among Adults with Overweight or #Obesity

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Once-Weekly #Semaglutide in Adults with Overweight or #Obesity

Obesity is a global health challenge with few pharmacologic options. Whether adults with obesity can achieve weight loss with once-weekly semaglutide at a dose of 2.4 mg as an adjunct to lifestyle intervention has not been confirmed. METHODS In this double-blind trial, we enrolled 1961 adults with a body-mass index (the weight in kilograms divided by the square of the height in meters) of 30 … Continue reading Once-Weekly #Semaglutide in Adults with Overweight or #Obesity

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Effects of two personalized #dietary strategies during a 2‐year intervention in subjects with nonalcoholic #fatty #liver disease: a randomized trial

Background and objectives Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) management is focused on lifestyle modifications, but long‐term maintenance is a challenge for many individuals. This study aimed to evaluate the long‐term effects of two personalized energy‐restricted dietary strategies on weight loss, metabolic and hepatic outcomes in overweight/obese subjects with NAFLD. Methods Ninety‐eight subjects from the Fatty Liver in Obesity (FLiO) study (NCT03183193) were randomly assigned to … Continue reading Effects of two personalized #dietary strategies during a 2‐year intervention in subjects with nonalcoholic #fatty #liver disease: a randomized trial

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Time-restricted #feeding normalizes hyperinsulinemia to inhibit #breast cancer in obese postmenopausal mouse models

Accumulating evidence indicates that obesity with its associated metabolic dysregulation, including hyperinsulinemia and aberrant circadian rhythms, increases the risk for a variety of cancers including postmenopausal breast cancer. Caloric restriction can ameliorate the harmful metabolic effects of obesity and inhibit cancer progression but is difficult to implement and maintain outside of the clinic. In this study, we aim to test a time-restricted feeding (TRF) approach … Continue reading Time-restricted #feeding normalizes hyperinsulinemia to inhibit #breast cancer in obese postmenopausal mouse models

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Increased #alcohol use during the #COVID-19 pandemic: The effect of mental health and age in a cross-sectional sample of social media users in the U.S.

The COVID-19 pandemic has triggered a public health crisis of unprecedented scale. Increased alcohol use has been extensively documented during other crises, particularly among persons with anxiety and depression. Despite COVID-19’s differential impact by age, the association of age, mental health and alcohol use during the pandemic has not been explored. This study aimed to examine whether age modified the association of anxiety and depressive … Continue reading Increased #alcohol use during the #COVID-19 pandemic: The effect of mental health and age in a cross-sectional sample of social media users in the U.S.

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The Tailgate Study: Differing #metabolic effects of a bout of excessive #eating and #drinking

Excess energy intake by spectators at a sporting event (i.e., a tailgate) might cause acute negative health effects. However, limited data exist regarding the effects of overeating and alcohol consumption on lipid metabolism and the potential to gain intrahepatic triacylglycerols (IHTG). We tested the hypothesis that overconsumption of food and alcohol would significantly increase both hepatic de novo lipogenesis (DNL) and IHTG. Methods Eighteen males … Continue reading The Tailgate Study: Differing #metabolic effects of a bout of excessive #eating and #drinking

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#Fried-food consumption and risk of #cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality: a meta-analysis of observational studies

We performed a meta-analysis, including dose–response analysis, to quantitatively determine the association of fried-food consumption and risk of cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality in the general adult population.. ..In comparing the highest with lowest fried-food intake, summary RRs (95% CIs) were 1.28 (1.15 to 1.43; n=17, I2=82.0%) for major cardiovascular events (prospective: 1.24 (1.12 to 1.38), n=13, I2=75.7%; case–control: 1.91 (1.15 to 3.17), n=4, I2=92.1%); … Continue reading #Fried-food consumption and risk of #cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality: a meta-analysis of observational studies

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#Microbiome connections with host metabolism and habitual #diet from 1,098 deeply phenotyped individuals

The gut microbiome is shaped by diet and influences host metabolism; however, these links are complex and can be unique to each individual. We performed deep metagenomic sequencing of 1,203 gut microbiomes from 1,098 individuals enrolled in the Personalised Responses to Dietary Composition Trial (PREDICT 1) study, whose detailed long-term diet information, as well as hundreds of fasting and same-meal postprandial cardiometabolic blood marker measurements … Continue reading #Microbiome connections with host metabolism and habitual #diet from 1,098 deeply phenotyped individuals

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A randomized controlled trial of 130 g/day low-#carbohydrate diet in type 2 #diabetes with poor glycemic control

The usefulness of low-carbohydrate diet (LCD) for Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has not been fully investigated. Therefore, we compared the effectiveness and safety of LCD with calorie restricted diet (CRD). This prospective, randomized, open-label, comparative study included 66 T2DM patients with HbA1c >7.5% even after receiving repeated education programs on CRD. They were randomly allocated to either the 130g/day LCD group … Continue reading A randomized controlled trial of 130 g/day low-#carbohydrate diet in type 2 #diabetes with poor glycemic control

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