Emotional #Stress Induces Structural Plasticity in Bergmann Glial Cells via an AC5–CPEB3–GluA1 Pathway

..SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Astrocytes play important roles in synaptic transmission by extending fine processes around synapses. In this study, we showed that a single exposure to an acute stress triggered a retraction of lateral/fine processes in mouse cerebellar astrocytes. These astrocytes express GluA1, a glutamate receptor subunit known to lengthen astrocyte processes. We showed that astrocytic structural changes are associated with a reduction of GluA1 protein … Continue reading Emotional #Stress Induces Structural Plasticity in Bergmann Glial Cells via an AC5–CPEB3–GluA1 Pathway

Emotional #stress induces structural #plasticity in Bergmann glial cells via an AC5-CPEB3-GluA1 pathway

Stress alters brain function by modifying the structure and function of neurons and astrocytes. The fine processes of astrocytes are critical for the clearance of neurotransmitters during synaptic transmission. Thus, experience-dependent remodeling of glial processes is anticipated to alter the output of neural circuits.. ..Significance statement Astrocytes play important roles in synaptic transmission by extending fine processes around synapses. In this study, we showed that … Continue reading Emotional #stress induces structural #plasticity in Bergmann glial cells via an AC5-CPEB3-GluA1 pathway

Central sensory-motor crosstalk in the neural gut-brain axis

The neural gut-brain axis consists of viscerosensory and autonomic motor neurons innervating the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Sensory neurons transmit nutrient-related and non-nutrient-related information to the brain, while motor neurons regulate GI motility and secretion. Previous research provides an incomplete picture of the brain nuclei that are directly connected with the neural gut-brain axis, and no studies have thoroughly assessed sensory-motor overlap in those nuclei. Our … Continue reading Central sensory-motor crosstalk in the neural gut-brain axis

BrainAGE and regional volumetric analysis of a Buddhist monk: a longitudinal MRI case study

Yongey Mingyur Rinpoche (YMR) is a Tibetan Buddhist monk, and renowned meditation practitioner and teacher who has spent an extraordinary number of hours of his life meditating. The brain-aging profile of this expert meditator in comparison to a control population was examined using a machine learning framework, which estimates “brain-age” from brain imaging. YMR’s brain-aging rate appeared slower than that of controls suggesting early maturation … Continue reading BrainAGE and regional volumetric analysis of a Buddhist monk: a longitudinal MRI case study

#Diet modulates brain network stability, a biomarker for brain #aging, in young adults

..One cohort was scanned under standard diet, overnight fasting, and ketogenic diet conditions. To isolate the impact of fuel type, an independent overnight fasted cohort was scanned before and after administration of a calorie-matched glucose and exogenous ketone ester (D-β-hydroxybutyrate) bolus. Across the life span, brain network destabilization correlated with decreased brain activity and cognitive acuity. Effects emerged at 47 y, with the most rapid … Continue reading #Diet modulates brain network stability, a biomarker for brain #aging, in young adults

Boom Chack Boom—A multimethod investigation of motor inhibition in professional #drummers

Our hands are the primary means for motor interaction with the environment, and their neural organization is fundamentally asymmetric: While most individuals can perform easy motor tasks with two hands equally well, only very few individuals can perform complex fine motor tasks with both hands at a similar level of performance.. ..Our results show that drummers have higher microstructural diffusion properties in the corpus callosum … Continue reading Boom Chack Boom—A multimethod investigation of motor inhibition in professional #drummers

Effects of #tranexamic acid on death, disability, vascular occlusive events and other morbidities in patients with acute traumatic #brain injury (CRASH-3): a randomised, placebo-controlled trial

Tranexamic acid reduces surgical bleeding and decreases mortality in patients with traumatic extracranial bleeding. Intracranial bleeding is common after traumatic brain injury (TBI) and can cause brain herniation and death. We aimed to assess the effects of tranexamic acid in patients with TBI. The risk of head injury-related death reduced with tranexamic acid in patients with mild-to-moderate head injury (RR 0·78 [95% CI 0·64–0·95]) but … Continue reading Effects of #tranexamic acid on death, disability, vascular occlusive events and other morbidities in patients with acute traumatic #brain injury (CRASH-3): a randomised, placebo-controlled trial