An RCT study showing few weeks of music lessons enhance audio-visual temporal processing

Music involves different senses and is emotional in nature, and musicians show enhanced detection of audio-visual temporal discrepancies and emotion recognition compared to non-musicians. However, whether musical training produces these enhanced abilities or if they are innate within musicians remains unclear. Thirty-one adult participants were randomly assigned to a music training, music listening, or control …

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Single-Dose Psilocybin for a Treatment-Resistant Episode of Major Depression

In this phase 2 double-blind trial, we randomly assigned adults with treatment-resistant depression to receive a single dose of a proprietary, synthetic formulation of psilocybin at a dose of 25 mg, 10 mg, or 1 mg (control), along with psychological support. The primary end point was the change from baseline to week 3 in the …

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Depression, Depression Treatments, and Risk of Incident Dementia: A Prospective Cohort Study of 354,313 Participants

BACKGROUNDTo investigate the associations between courses of depression, the application of depression treatment, and the risk of incident dementia.METHODSIn this prospective cohort study, 354,313 participants aged 50 to 70 years were recruited from the UK Biobank between 2006 and 2010, and were followed-up until 2020, with a total of 4,212,929 person-years. We initially studied the …

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Evaluation of Early Ketamine Effects on Belief-Updating Biases in Patients With Treatment-Resistant Depression

Key Points Question  What are the effects of ketamine on belief updating in patients with treatment-resistant depression (TRD)? Findings  This case-control study in patients with TRD showed that belief updating became more optimistically biased as soon as 4 hours after a first ketamine infusion. This early cognitive effect of ketamine was formalized by stronger asymmetrical reinforcement learning …

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Clinical, gut microbial and neural effects of a probiotic add-on therapy in depressed patients: a randomized controlled trial

A promising new treatment approach for major depressive disorder (MDD) targets the microbiota-gut-brain (MGB) axis, which is linked to physiological and behavioral functions affected in MDD. This is the first randomized controlled trial to determine whether short-term, high-dose probiotic supplementation reduces depressive symptoms along with gut microbial and neural changes in depressed patients. Patients with …

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