#Aspirin for primary prevention of cardiovascular disease, part 2

..ASPREE study suggests no benefit from aspirin in primary prevention ASPREE randomized 19,114 healthy people 70 or over (65 or over for African Americans and Hispanics) to receive either 100 milligrams of enteric-coated aspirin or placebo. After an average of almost five years, there was no significant difference in the rate of fatal coronary heart disease, heart attack, stroke, or hospitalization for heart failure. There … Continue reading #Aspirin for primary prevention of cardiovascular disease, part 2

Intratumoral accumulation of gut #microbiota facilitates CD47-based immunotherapy via STING signaling

..Using one defined anaerobic gut microbiota to track whether microbiota interact with host immunity, we observed that Bifidobacterium facilitates local anti-CD47 immunotherapy on tumor tissues through the capacity to accumulate within the tumor microenvironment. Systemic administration of Bifidobacterium leads to its accumulation within the tumor and converts the nonresponder mice into responders to anti-CD47 immunotherapy in a stimulator of interferon genes (STING)– and interferon-dependent fashion. … Continue reading Intratumoral accumulation of gut #microbiota facilitates CD47-based immunotherapy via STING signaling

Type 2 #diabetes influences bacterial tissue compartmentalisation in human obesity

..Visceral obesity is a key risk factor for type 2 diabetes (T2D). Whereas gut dysbiosis appears to be instrumental for this relationship, whether gut-associated signatures translocate to extra-intestinal tissues and how this affects host metabolism remain elusive ..We identified tissue-specific signatures with higher bacterial load in the liver and omental adipose tissue. Gut commensals, but also environmental bacteria, showed tissue- and T2D-specific compartmentalisation. T2D signatures … Continue reading Type 2 #diabetes influences bacterial tissue compartmentalisation in human obesity

Ethnic influence on #nonalcoholic fatty liver disease prevalence and lack of disease awareness in the United States, 2011–2016

Amongst the study population of 4538 persons, NAFLD prevalence was 32.5%, lowest in non‐Hispanic Blacks (18.0%) and Asians (18.1%), highest amongst Mexican Americans (48.4%). Within the NAFLD group, advanced fibrosis was highest in non‐Hispanic Blacks (28.5%) and lowest amongst non‐Hispanic Asians (2.7%). Of the 1473 (97.5%) NAFLD participants who answered NAFLD awareness question, 90% visited a healthcare centre at least once in the past year, … Continue reading Ethnic influence on #nonalcoholic fatty liver disease prevalence and lack of disease awareness in the United States, 2011–2016

#Dysbiosis-Induced Secondary Bile Acid Deficiency Promotes Intestinal Inflammation

Secondary bile acids (SBAs) are derived from primary bile acids (PBAs) in a process reliant on biosynthetic capabilities possessed by few microbes. To evaluate the role of BAs in intestinal inflammation, we performed metabolomic, microbiome, metagenomic, and transcriptomic profiling of stool from ileal pouches (surgically created resevoirs) in colectomy-treated patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) versus controls (familial adenomatous polyposis [FAP]). We show that relative to … Continue reading #Dysbiosis-Induced Secondary Bile Acid Deficiency Promotes Intestinal Inflammation

The intestinal #microbiota and #cardiovascular disease

The intestinal microbiota of human hosts is the community of microorganisms living in the small and, mainly, the large intestine of humans. This microbial ecosystem has co-evolved with humans across the millennia, has come to play an important interactive role in human physiology and has been aptly called our forgotten organ. Significant properties of the microbiota benefiting its host include energy harvest from food sources … Continue reading The intestinal #microbiota and #cardiovascular disease

Gut #microbiota composition during infancy and subsequent #behavioural outcomes

..The faecal microbiota were analysed at 1, 6, and 12 months of age. Behavioural outcomes were measured at 2 years of age. Findings In an unselected birth cohort, we found a clear association between decreased normalised abundance of Prevotella in faecal samples collected at 12 months of age and increased behavioural problems at 2 years, in particular Internalizing Problem scores. This association appeared independent of … Continue reading Gut #microbiota composition during infancy and subsequent #behavioural outcomes

#Mediterranean diet intervention alters the gut microbiome in older people reducing #frailty and improving health status: the NU-AGE 1-year dietary intervention across five European countries

..Adherence to the diet was associated with specific microbiome alterations. Taxa enriched by adherence to the diet were positively associated with several markers of lower frailty and improved cognitive function, and negatively associated with inflammatory markers including C-reactive protein and interleukin-17. Analysis of the inferred microbial metabolite profiles indicated that the diet-modulated microbiome change was associated with an increase in short/branch chained fatty acid production … Continue reading #Mediterranean diet intervention alters the gut microbiome in older people reducing #frailty and improving health status: the NU-AGE 1-year dietary intervention across five European countries

Mitigation of nonalcoholic #fatty liver disease in high-fat-fed mice by the combination of decaffeinated green tea extract and voluntary exercise

We have shown that combination treatment with decaffeinated green tea extract (GTE) and voluntary exercise (Ex) reduces obesity and insulin resistance in high-fat (HF)-fed mice to a greater extent than either treatment alone. Here, we investigated the effects of GTE-, Ex- or the combination on the development of obesity-related NAFLD.. ..Combination treated, but not singly treated mice, had higher hepatic expression of genes related to … Continue reading Mitigation of nonalcoholic #fatty liver disease in high-fat-fed mice by the combination of decaffeinated green tea extract and voluntary exercise

#Nut Consumption and Risk of #Cancer: A Meta-analysis of Prospective Studies

..When comparing the highest with the lowest category of nut intake, high consumption of nuts was significantly associated with decreased risk of overall cancer (RR = 0.90; 95% CI, 0.85–0.95). The protective effect of nut consumption was especially apparent against cancers from the digestive system (RR = 0.83; 95% CI, 0.77–0.89). Among different nut classes, significant association was only obtained for intake of tree nuts. … Continue reading #Nut Consumption and Risk of #Cancer: A Meta-analysis of Prospective Studies

Unresolved issues of immune tolerance in chronic hepatitis #B

During the natural course of chronic hepatitis B virus infection, immune-tolerant phase is characterized by high viral replication, the presence of HBV e antigen (HBeAg), and normal or minimally elevated serum alanine aminotransferase. Immune-tolerant phase is usually regarded as a benign course of the disease. International guidelines recommend observation rather than treatment during immune-tolerant phase. In this article, we review unresolved issues related to the … Continue reading Unresolved issues of immune tolerance in chronic hepatitis #B

Adrenergic Signaling in #Muscularis Macrophages Limits Infection-Induced Neuronal Loss

..Enteric-associated neurons (EANs) are closely associated with immune cells and continuously monitor and modulate homeostatic intestinal functions, including motility and nutrient sensing. Bidirectional interactions between neuronal and immune cells are altered during disease processes such as neurodegeneration or #irritable bowel syndrome. We investigated the effects of infection-induced inflammation on intrinsic EANs (iEANs) and the role of intestinal muscularis macrophages (MMs) in this context Using murine … Continue reading Adrenergic Signaling in #Muscularis Macrophages Limits Infection-Induced Neuronal Loss