Epithelial HVEM maintains intraepithelial T cell survival and contributes to host protection

Intestinal epithelia maintain T cellsImmune surveillance of the intestinal epithelium is crucial for intestinal homeostasis and protecting against infection. However, how the intestinal epithelium helps induce immune surveilling intraepithelial T cells (IET) is unclear. Here, Seo, Takahashi, and Wang et al. used mouse knockout models to demonstrate that herpes virus entry mediator (HVEM), a TNFR …

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Modifications of Behavior and Inflammation in Mice Following Transplant with Fecal Microbiota from Children with Autism

Highlightsโ€ขModifications of behavior and inflammatory factors in mice gut-brain axis.โ€ขKey role of gut microbiota during the different developmental phases of ASD.โ€ขFecal microbiota transplant improves ASD symptoms.AbstractAutism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder displaying the modification of complex human behaviors, characterized by social interaction impairments, stereotypical/repetitive activities and emotional dysregulation. In this study, fecal microbiota …

Continue reading Modifications of Behavior and Inflammation in Mice Following Transplant with Fecal Microbiota from Children with Autism

Dual stromal targeting sensitizes pancreatic adenocarcinoma for anti-PD-1 therapy

Background and AimsThe stroma in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) contributes to its immunosuppressive nature and therapeutic resistance. Herein we sought to modify signaling and enhance immunotherapy efficacy by targeting multiple stromal components through both intracellular and extracellular mechanisms.MethodsA murine liver metastasis syngeneic model of PDAC was treated with focal adhesion kinase inhibitor (FAKi), anti-PD-1 antibody …

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Western-style Diet, pks Island-Carrying Escherichia coli, and Colorectal Cancer: Analyses from Two Large Prospective Cohort Studies

BACKGROUND AND AIMSEvidence supports a carcinogenic role of Escherichia coli carrying the polyketide synthase (pks) island that encodes enzymes for colibactin biosynthesis. We hypothesized that the association of western-style diet (rich in red and processed meat) with colorectal cancer incidence might be stronger for tumors containing higher amounts of pks+ E. coli.METHODSWestern diet score was …

Continue reading Western-style Diet, pks Island-Carrying Escherichia coli, and Colorectal Cancer: Analyses from Two Large Prospective Cohort Studies

Robust variation in infant gut microbiome assembly across a spectrum of lifestyles

Establishing early diversityHumans living an urbanized lifestyle in industrialized countries tend to have less diverse microbiota than people living more rural existences. Using fecal 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing, Olm et al. found that after the first 6 months of life, the microbiome of infants living in contrasting environments diverged from Bifidobacteria-dominated assemblages. Deep metagenomic sequencing …

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