#Microbiome connections with host metabolism and habitual #diet from 1,098 deeply phenotyped individuals

The gut microbiome is shaped by diet and influences host metabolism; however, these links are complex and can be unique to each individual. We performed deep metagenomic sequencing of 1,203 gut microbiomes from 1,098 individuals enrolled in the Personalised Responses to Dietary Composition Trial (PREDICT 1) study, whose detailed long-term diet information, as well as hundreds of fasting and same-meal postprandial cardiometabolic blood marker measurements … Continue reading #Microbiome connections with host metabolism and habitual #diet from 1,098 deeply phenotyped individuals

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Efficacy and safety of #linagliptin in type 2 #diabetes patients with self-reported #hepatic disorders: A retrospective pooled analysis of 17 randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials

Liver disease is highly prevalent among people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We evaluated the dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor linagliptin in subjects with T2DM and hepatic disorders.. ..Of the 7009 participants (56% white, 39% Asian), 574 had hepatic disorders, most commonly hepatic steatosis (60%). At week 24, adjusted mean ± standard error (SE) change in HbA1c from baseline in those with hepatic disorders was − … Continue reading Efficacy and safety of #linagliptin in type 2 #diabetes patients with self-reported #hepatic disorders: A retrospective pooled analysis of 17 randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials

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Physiologically increased total #bilirubin is associated with reduced risk of first #myocardial infarction: A meta-analysis and dose-response analysis

Bilirubin has potential predictive and prognostic value for myocardial infarction (MI), but the clinical evidence remains controversial. We performed this meta-analysis to systematically quantify the relationships between circulating bilirubin levels and the incidence of MI and post-MI adverse events. We searched the PubMed, Cochrane Library, Embase, and Web of Science databases for ad-hoc studies, published up to October 17, 2020, recording bilirubin before MI (predictive … Continue reading Physiologically increased total #bilirubin is associated with reduced risk of first #myocardial infarction: A meta-analysis and dose-response analysis

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Use of #proton pump inhibitors to treat persistent #throat symptoms: multicentre, double blind, randomised, placebo controlled trial

To assess the use of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) to treat persistent throat symptoms.. ..Random blinded allocation (1:1) to either 30 mg lansoprazole twice daily or matched placebo twice daily for 16 weeks. Main outcome measures Primary outcome was symptomatic response at 16 weeks measured using the total reflux symptom index (RSI) score. Secondary outcomes included symptom response at 12 months, quality of life, and … Continue reading Use of #proton pump inhibitors to treat persistent #throat symptoms: multicentre, double blind, randomised, placebo controlled trial

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Racial Disparities in Epigenetic Aging of the Right vs Left #Colon

There are well-documented racial differences in age-of-onset and laterality of colorectal cancer. Epigenetic age acceleration is postulated to be an underlying factor. However, comparative studies of side-specific colonic tissue epigenetic aging are lacking. Here, we performed DNA methylation analysis of matched right and left biopsies of normal colon from 128 individuals. Among African Americans (n = 88), the right colon showed accelerated epigenetic aging as compared to … Continue reading Racial Disparities in Epigenetic Aging of the Right vs Left #Colon

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#Renal Failure is Associated With Increased Mortality and Hospital Utilization in Patients Admitted With Nonalcoholic #Steatohepatitis

We aimed to investigate the mortality and hospital utilization outcomes of hospitalized nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) patients with and without kidney failure in a nationwide cohort.. ..The overall sample included 7,135,090 patients. Among 6855 patients admitted for NASH, 598 or 8.7% had comorbid kidney failure. After multivariate regression analysis, NASH patients with renal failure had increased in-hospital mortality [odds ratio=28.72, 95% confidence interval (CI): 8.99-91.73], length … Continue reading #Renal Failure is Associated With Increased Mortality and Hospital Utilization in Patients Admitted With Nonalcoholic #Steatohepatitis

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Organ-specific, multimodal, wireless optoelectronics for high-throughput phenotyping of peripheral neural pathways

The vagus nerve supports diverse autonomic functions and behaviors important for health and survival. To understand how specific components of the vagus contribute to behaviors and long-term physiological effects, it is critical to modulate their activity with anatomical specificity in awake, freely behaving conditions using reliable methods. Here, we introduce an organ-specific scalable, multimodal, wireless optoelectronic device for precise and chronic optogenetic manipulations in vivo. … Continue reading Organ-specific, multimodal, wireless optoelectronics for high-throughput phenotyping of peripheral neural pathways

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AGA Clinical Practice Update on Medical Management of Colonic #Diverticulitis: Expert Review

Colonic diverticulitis is a painful gastrointestinal disease that recurs unpredictably and can lead to chronic gastrointestinal symptoms. Gastroenterologists commonly care for patients with this disease. The purpose of this Clinical Practice Update is to provide practical and evidence-based advice for management of diverticulitis. We reviewed systematic reviews, meta-analyses, randomized controlled trials, and observational studies to develop 14 best practices. In brief, computed tomography is often … Continue reading AGA Clinical Practice Update on Medical Management of Colonic #Diverticulitis: Expert Review

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Advanced #Liver Fibrosis Is Common in Patients With Type 2 #Diabetes Followed in the Outpatient Setting: The Need for Systematic Screening

Assess the prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and of liver fibrosis associated with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis in unselected patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). A total of 561 patients with T2DM (age: 60 ± 11 years; BMI: 33.4 ± 6.2 kg/m2; and HbA1c: 7.5 ± 1.8%) attending primary care or endocrinology outpatient clinics and unaware of having NAFLD. At the visit, volunteers were … Continue reading Advanced #Liver Fibrosis Is Common in Patients With Type 2 #Diabetes Followed in the Outpatient Setting: The Need for Systematic Screening

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#Endoscopy-related #bleeding and thromboembolic events in patients on direct oral anticoagulants or vitamin K antagonists

Few prospective studies have assessed the safety of direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) in elective endoscopy. Our primary aim was to compare the risks of endoscopy-related gastrointestinal bleeding and thromboembolic events in patients on DOACs or vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) in this setting. Secondarily, we examined the impact of the timing of anticoagulant resumption on the risk of delayed bleeding in high-risk therapeutic procedures.. The 2 … Continue reading #Endoscopy-related #bleeding and thromboembolic events in patients on direct oral anticoagulants or vitamin K antagonists

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#Avocado Consumption Alters Gastrointestinal #Bacteria Abundance and Microbial Metabolite Concentrations among Adults with Overweight or #Obesity: A Randomized Controlled Trial

Avocados are rich in dietary fiber and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs), nutrients that have been independently connected to metabolic health benefits and the gastrointestinal microbiota. Objectives We aimed to evaluate the impact of avocado consumption on the gastrointestinal microbiota and microbial metabolites, secondary outcomes of the Persea americana for Total Health (PATH) study, and conduct exploratory analyses to assess relations between the fecal microbiota, fecal … Continue reading #Avocado Consumption Alters Gastrointestinal #Bacteria Abundance and Microbial Metabolite Concentrations among Adults with Overweight or #Obesity: A Randomized Controlled Trial

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Elevated ectodomain of type 23 #collagen is a novel biomarker of the intestinal epithelium to monitor disease activity in #ulcerative colitis and #Crohn’s disease

Impaired intestinal epithelial barrier is highly affected in inflammatory bowel disease. Transmembrane collagens connecting the epithelial cells to the extracellular matrix have an important role in epithelial cell homeostasis. Thus, we sought to determine whether the transmembrane type 23 collagen could serve as a surrogate marker for disease activity in patients with Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis.. In the acute and chronic dextran sulfate sodium-induced … Continue reading Elevated ectodomain of type 23 #collagen is a novel biomarker of the intestinal epithelium to monitor disease activity in #ulcerative colitis and #Crohn’s disease

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