Fitness tracking reveals task-specific associations between memory, mental health, and physical activity

Physical activity can benefit both physical and mental well-being. Different forms of exercise (e.g., aerobic versus anaerobic; running versus walking, swimming, or yoga; high-intensity interval training versus endurance workouts; etc.) impact physical fitness in different ways. For example, running may substantially impact leg and heart strength but only moderately impact arm strength. We hypothesized that …

Continue reading Fitness tracking reveals task-specific associations between memory, mental health, and physical activity

Effects of cocoa extract and a multivitamin on cognitive function: A randomized clinical trial

IntroductionDietary supplements are touted for cognitive protection, but supporting evidence is mixed. COSMOS-Mind tested whether daily administration of cocoa extract (containing 500Β mg/day flavanols) versus placebo and a commercial multivitamin-mineral (MVM) versus placebo improved cognition in older women and men.MethodsCOSMOS-Mind, a large randomized two-by-two factorial 3-year trial, assessed cognition by telephone at baseline and annually. The …

Continue reading Effects of cocoa extract and a multivitamin on cognitive function: A randomized clinical trial

Spontaneous discovery of novel task solutions in children

Children often perform worse than adults on tasks that require focused attention. While this is commonly regarded as a sign of incomplete cognitive development, a broader attentional focus could also endow children with the ability to find novel solutions to a given task. To test this idea, we investigated children’s ability to discover and use …

Continue reading Spontaneous discovery of novel task solutions in children

Gut bacterial isoamylamine promotes age-related cognitive dysfunction by promoting microglial cell death

The intestinal microbiome releases a plethora of small molecules. Here, we show that the Ruminococcaceae metabolite isoamylamine (IAA) is enriched in aged mice and elderly people, whereas Ruminococcaceae phages, belonging to the Myoviridae family, are reduced. Young mice orally administered IAA show cognitive decline, whereas Myoviridae phage administration reduces IAA levels. Mechanistically, IAA promotes apoptosis …

Continue reading Gut bacterial isoamylamine promotes age-related cognitive dysfunction by promoting microglial cell death

To what extent does confounding explain the association between breastfeeding duration and cognitive development up to age 14? Findings from the UK Millennium Cohort Study

BackgroundBreastfeeding duration is associated with improved cognitive development in children, but it is unclear whether this is a causal relationship or due to confounding. This study evaluates whether the observed association is explained by socioeconomic position (SEP) and maternal cognitive ability. MethodsData from 7,855 singletons born in 2000–2002 and followed up to age 14 years …

Continue reading To what extent does confounding explain the association between breastfeeding duration and cognitive development up to age 14? Findings from the UK Millennium Cohort Study