Foreword

Buongiorno! Guten Tag! Good Morning!
My name is Aldo, I am a physician and I live in Italy. I have always read a lot of medical news, and I have realised how difficult it is to forget to read those news if you’re not disciplined enough or if you don’t make that a habit. So I have decided to help myself and the community, here and on the Telegram app, and share just two articles daily, those that get my attention.

Buona Lettura! Continue reading Foreword

Comparison of dietary macronutrient patterns of 14 popular named dietary programmes for #weight and cardiovascular risk factor reduction in adults: systematic review and network meta-analysis of randomised trials

..Compared with usual diet, low carbohydrate and low fat diets had a similar effect at six months on weight loss (4.63 v 4.37 kg, both moderate certainty) and reduction in systolic blood pressure (5.14 mm Hg, moderate certainty v 5.05 mm Hg, low certainty) and diastolic blood pressure (3.21 v 2.85 mm Hg, both low certainty). Moderate macronutrient diets resulted in slightly less weight loss … Continue reading Comparison of dietary macronutrient patterns of 14 popular named dietary programmes for #weight and cardiovascular risk factor reduction in adults: systematic review and network meta-analysis of randomised trials

Timing of #Endoscopy for Acute Upper Gastrointestinal #Bleeding

To evaluate whether urgent endoscopy improves outcomes in patients predicted to be at high risk for further bleeding or death, we randomly assigned patients with overt signs of acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding and a Glasgow–Blatchford score of 12 or higher (scores range from 0 to 23, with higher scores indicating a higher risk of further bleeding or death) to undergo endoscopy within 6 hours (urgent-endoscopy … Continue reading Timing of #Endoscopy for Acute Upper Gastrointestinal #Bleeding

Estimates of the severity of #coronavirus disease 2019: a model-based analysis

Using data on 24 deaths that occurred in mainland China and 165 recoveries outside of China, we estimated the mean duration from onset of symptoms to death to be 17·8 days (95% credible interval [CrI] 16·9–19·2) and to hospital discharge to be 24·7 days (22·9–28·1). In all laboratory confirmed and clinically diagnosed cases from mainland China (n=70 117), we estimated a crude case fatality ratio (adjusted … Continue reading Estimates of the severity of #coronavirus disease 2019: a model-based analysis

Plant‐based and animal‐based low‐carbohydrate #diets and risk of #hepatocellular carcinoma among US men and women

Little is known about the role of low‐carbohydrate diets (LCDs) in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).. ..During 3,664,769 person years of follow‐up, there were 156 incident HCC cases. Although there were no associations between overall or animal‐based LCD score and risk of HCC, plant‐based LCD score was inversely associated with HCC risk (HR: 0.83; 95% CI: 0.70‐0.98; Ptrend=0.03). Carbohydrate intake, especially from refined grains … Continue reading Plant‐based and animal‐based low‐carbohydrate #diets and risk of #hepatocellular carcinoma among US men and women

A Randomized, Controlled Trial of #Liraglutide for Adolescents with #Obesity

Liraglutide was superior to placebo with regard to the change from baseline in the BMI standard-deviation score at week 56 (estimated difference, −0.22; 95% confidence interval [CI], −0.37 to −0.08; P=0.002). A reduction in BMI of at least 5% was observed in 51 of 113 participants in the liraglutide group and in 20 of 105 participants in the placebo group (estimated percentage, 43.3% vs. 18.7%), … Continue reading A Randomized, Controlled Trial of #Liraglutide for Adolescents with #Obesity

Loss of life expectancy from air #pollution compared to other risk factors: a worldwide perspective

..We used a data-informed atmospheric model to calculate worldwide exposure to PM2.5 and ozone pollution, which was combined with the GEMM to estimate disease-specific excess mortality and loss of life expectancy (LLE) in 2015. Using this model, we investigated the effects of different pollution sources, distinguishing between natural (wildfires, aeolian dust) and anthropogenic emissions, including fossil fuel use. Global excess mortality from all ambient air … Continue reading Loss of life expectancy from air #pollution compared to other risk factors: a worldwide perspective

#IL-4 induces M2 macrophages to produce sustained #analgesia via opioids

IL-4 is a pleiotropic antiinflammatory cytokine, which can be neuroprotective after nervous system injury. The beneficial actions of IL-4 are thought to result from the blunting of action of inflammatory mediators, such as proinflammatory cytokines. Here, we demonstrate that IL-4 induces M2 macrophages to continuously produce opioid peptides and ameliorate pain. IL-4 application at injured nerves in mice shifted F4/80+ macrophages from the proinflammatory M1 … Continue reading #IL-4 induces M2 macrophages to produce sustained #analgesia via opioids

Joint Effects of #Body Mass Index and Waist Circumference on the Incidence of #Hypertension in a Community-Based Chinese Population

.. During 2.3 years of follow-up, 19.1% (n = 97) of the men and 13.6% (n = 158) of the women developed incident hypertension. The adjusted odds ratios (ORs) (95% confidence intervals [CIs]) for obesity (BMI ≥30) were 3.49 (1.59–7.66) and 2.60 (1.48–4.55) for men and women, respectively. A 1-point increase in BMI was associated with 8% (OR = 1.08, 95% CI: 1.00–1.17) and 10% … Continue reading Joint Effects of #Body Mass Index and Waist Circumference on the Incidence of #Hypertension in a Community-Based Chinese Population

Potential Effects of #Coronaviruses on the #Cardiovascular System

Coronavirus disease 2019 can cause a viral pneumonia with additional extrapulmonary manifestations and complications. A large proportion of patients have underlying cardiovascular disease and/or cardiac risk factors. Factors associated with mortality include male sex, advanced age, and presence of comorbidities including hypertension, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular diseases, and cerebrovascular diseases. Acute cardiac injury determined by elevated high-sensitivity troponin levels is commonly observed in severe cases and … Continue reading Potential Effects of #Coronaviruses on the #Cardiovascular System

Hours lying down per day, as a proxy for sedentary behaviour and risk of #diabetes in young and middle-aged adults in Norway: an 11-year follow-up of the HUNT study

..362 individuals (2.1%) developed diabetes during an average of 11-year follow-up. Individuals who reported lying down ≥9 hours/day had an adjusted OR of 1.35 (95% CI 1.01 to 1.80) for incident diabetes compared with those lying down 8 hours/day. Lying down ≤7 hours/day was not associated with the risk of diabetes. In analysis stratified by physical activity, the ORs associated with lying down ≥9 hours/day were 1.41 (95% CI … Continue reading Hours lying down per day, as a proxy for sedentary behaviour and risk of #diabetes in young and middle-aged adults in Norway: an 11-year follow-up of the HUNT study

EMA advises continued use of medicines for #hypertension, heart or #kidney disease during COVID-19 pandemic

EMA is aware of recent media reports and publications which question whether some medicines, for instance angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs, or sartan medicines), could worsen coronavirus disease (COVID-19). ACE inhibitors and ARBs are most commonly used for treating patients with high blood pressure, heart failure or kidney disease. It is important that patients do not interrupt their treatment with … Continue reading EMA advises continued use of medicines for #hypertension, heart or #kidney disease during COVID-19 pandemic

Protein Structure and Sequence Reanalysis of 2019-nCoV Genome Refutes Snakes as Its Intermediate Host and the Unique Similarity between Its Spike Protein Insertions and HIV-1

As the infection of 2019-nCoV #coronavirus is quickly developing into a global pneumonia epidemic, the careful analysis of its transmission and cellular mechanisms is sorely needed. In this Communication, we first analyzed two recent studies that concluded that snakes are the intermediate hosts of 2019-nCoV and that the 2019-nCoV spike protein insertions share a unique similarity to HIV-1. However, the reimplementation of the analyses, built … Continue reading Protein Structure and Sequence Reanalysis of 2019-nCoV Genome Refutes Snakes as Its Intermediate Host and the Unique Similarity between Its Spike Protein Insertions and HIV-1