#Language comprehension in the social #brain: Electrophysiological brain signals of social presence effects during syntactic and semantic sentence processing

Although, evolutionarily, language emerged predominantly for social purposes, much has yet to be uncovered regarding how language processing is affected by social context. Social presence research studies the ways in which the presence of a conspecific affects processing, but has yet to be thoroughly applied to language processes. The principal aim of this study was to see how syntactic and semantic language processing might be … Continue reading #Language comprehension in the social #brain: Electrophysiological brain signals of social presence effects during syntactic and semantic sentence processing

#Anticoagulation Timing in Cardioembolic #Stroke and Recurrent Event Risk

Guidelines recommend initiating anticoagulation within 4 to 14 days after cardioembolic stroke. Data supporting this did not account for key factors potentially affecting the decision to initiate anticoagulation, such as infarct size, hemorrhagic transformation, or high‐risk features on echocardiography.. ..We pooled data from stroke registries of 8 comprehensive stroke centers across the United States. We included consecutive patients admitted with ischemic stroke and atrial fibrillation. The … Continue reading #Anticoagulation Timing in Cardioembolic #Stroke and Recurrent Event Risk

Transcriptomic and clonal characterization of #T cells in the human central #nervous system

T cells provide critical immune surveillance to the central nervous system (CNS), and the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is thought to be a main route for their entry. Further characterization of the state of T cells in the CSF in healthy individuals is important for understanding how T cells provide protective immune surveillance without damaging the delicate environment of the CNS and providing tissue-specific context for … Continue reading Transcriptomic and clonal characterization of #T cells in the human central #nervous system

Increased risk of acute #stroke among patients with severe #COVID‐19: a multicenter study and meta‐analysis

Recent observations linked coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID‐19) to thromboembolic complications possibly mediated by increased blood coagulability and inflammatory endothelial impairment. We aimed to define the risk of acute stroke in patients with severe and non‐severe COVID‐19.. ..Of 165 patients hospitalized for COVID‐19 (49.1% males, median age 67 [57‐79], 72.1% severe or critical) included in the multicenter study, overall stroke rate was 4.2% (95%CI: 1.9‐8.7). Systematic … Continue reading Increased risk of acute #stroke among patients with severe #COVID‐19: a multicenter study and meta‐analysis

Chromatin accessibility mapping of the striatum identifies tyrosine kinase FYN as a therapeutic target for #heroin use disorder

The current opioid epidemic necessitates a better understanding of human addiction neurobiology to develop efficacious treatment approaches. Here, we perform genome-wide assessment of chromatin accessibility of the human striatum in heroin users and matched controls. Our study reveals distinct neuronal and non-neuronal epigenetic signatures, and identifies a locus in the proximity of the gene encoding tyrosine kinase FYN as the most affected region in neurons. … Continue reading Chromatin accessibility mapping of the striatum identifies tyrosine kinase FYN as a therapeutic target for #heroin use disorder

Associations of #BMI and Serum #Urate with Developing #Dementia: A Prospective Cohort Study

Recent studies suggested that higher BMI and serum urate levels were associated with lower risk of developing dementia. However, these reverse relationships remain controversial, and whether serum urate and BMI confound each other is not well established.. ..During a median of 8.1 years of follow-up, a total of 2138 participants developed dementia. People who were underweight had an increased risk of dementia (hazard ratio [HR] … Continue reading Associations of #BMI and Serum #Urate with Developing #Dementia: A Prospective Cohort Study

Post-traumatic stress disorder as a risk factor for #dementia: systematic review and meta-analysis

Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been identified as a potential risk factor for developing dementia. There are currently, however, no meta-analyses quantifying this risk.. ..PTSD was associated with a significant risk for all-cause dementia: pooled hazard ratio HR = 1.61 (95% CI 1.43–1.81, I2= 85.8%, P < 0.001; n = 1 693 678; 8 studies). Pooled HR was 1.61 (95% CI 1.46–1.78; I2= 80.9%, P … Continue reading Post-traumatic stress disorder as a risk factor for #dementia: systematic review and meta-analysis

An atlas on risk factors for type 2 #diabetes: a wide-angled Mendelian randomisation study

..We found evidence of causal associations between 34 exposures (19 risk factors and 15 protective factors) and type 2 diabetes. Insomnia was identified as a novel risk factor (OR 1.17 [95% CI 1.11, 1.23]). The other 18 risk factors were depression, systolic BP, smoking initiation, lifetime smoking, coffee (caffeine) consumption, plasma isoleucine, valine and leucine, liver alanine aminotransferase, childhood and adulthood BMI, body fat percentage, … Continue reading An atlas on risk factors for type 2 #diabetes: a wide-angled Mendelian randomisation study

Estimates of the Association of #Dementia With US #Mortality Levels Using Linked Survey and Mortality Records

..Of the 7342 total sample, 4348 participants (60.3%) were women. At baseline, 4533 individuals (64.0%) were between ages 70 and 79 years, 2393 individuals (31.0%) were between 80 and 89 years, and 416 individuals (5.0%) were between 90 and 99 years; percentages were weighted. The percentage of deaths attributable to dementia was 13.6% (95% CI, 12.2%-15.0%) between 2000 and 2009. The mortality burden of dementia … Continue reading Estimates of the Association of #Dementia With US #Mortality Levels Using Linked Survey and Mortality Records

Plasma Biomarker Concentrations Associated With Return to #Sport Following Sport-Related #Concussion in Collegiate Athletes—A Concussion Assessment, Research, and Education (CARE) Consortium Study

Identifying plasma biomarkers associated with the amount of time an athlete may need before they return to sport (RTS) following a sport-related concussion (SRC) is important because it may help to improve the health and safety of athletes.. A total of 3 plasma biomarkers (ie, total tau protein, glial fibrillary acidic protein [GFAP], and neurofilament light chain protein [Nf-L]) were measured using an ultrasensitive single … Continue reading Plasma Biomarker Concentrations Associated With Return to #Sport Following Sport-Related #Concussion in Collegiate Athletes—A Concussion Assessment, Research, and Education (CARE) Consortium Study

#Sleep Disturbance Forecasts β- #Amyloid Accumulation across Subsequent Years

Experimental sleep-wake disruption in rodents and humans causally modulates β-amyloid (Aβ) dynamics (e.g., [1, 2, 3]). This leads to the hypothesis that, beyond cross-sectional associations, impaired sleep structure and physiology could represent prospective biomarkers of the speed with which Aβ accumulates over time. Here, we test the hypothesis that initial baseline measures of non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep slow-wave activity (SWA) and sleep quality (efficiency) … Continue reading #Sleep Disturbance Forecasts β- #Amyloid Accumulation across Subsequent Years

#Placebos without deception reduce self-report and neural measures of emotional #distress

Several recent studies suggest that placebos administered without deception (i.e., non-deceptive placebos) can help people manage a variety of highly distressing clinical disorders and nonclinical impairments. However, whether non-deceptive placebos represent genuine psychobiological effects is unknown. Here we address this issue by demonstrating across two experiments that during a highly arousing negative picture viewing task, non-deceptive placebos reduce both a self-report and neural measure of … Continue reading #Placebos without deception reduce self-report and neural measures of emotional #distress