Changing Flows Balance Nutrient Absorption and Bacterial Growth along the Gut

Small intestine motility and its ensuing flow of luminal content impact both nutrient absorption and bacterial growth. To explore this interdependence we introduce a biophysical description of intestinal flow and absorption. Rooted in observations of mice we identify the average flow velocity as the key control of absorption efficiency and bacterial growth, independent of the …

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Modifications of Behavior and Inflammation in Mice Following Transplant with Fecal Microbiota from Children with Autism

Highlights•Modifications of behavior and inflammatory factors in mice gut-brain axis.•Key role of gut microbiota during the different developmental phases of ASD.•Fecal microbiota transplant improves ASD symptoms.AbstractAutism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder displaying the modification of complex human behaviors, characterized by social interaction impairments, stereotypical/repetitive activities and emotional dysregulation. In this study, fecal microbiota …

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Robust variation in infant gut microbiome assembly across a spectrum of lifestyles

Establishing early diversityHumans living an urbanized lifestyle in industrialized countries tend to have less diverse microbiota than people living more rural existences. Using fecal 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing, Olm et al. found that after the first 6 months of life, the microbiome of infants living in contrasting environments diverged from Bifidobacteria-dominated assemblages. Deep metagenomic sequencing …

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Clinical, gut microbial and neural effects of a probiotic add-on therapy in depressed patients: a randomized controlled trial

A promising new treatment approach for major depressive disorder (MDD) targets the microbiota-gut-brain (MGB) axis, which is linked to physiological and behavioral functions affected in MDD. This is the first randomized controlled trial to determine whether short-term, high-dose probiotic supplementation reduces depressive symptoms along with gut microbial and neural changes in depressed patients. Patients with …

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Heterogeneity in statin responses explained by variation in the human gut microbiome

Despite the undeniable cholesterol lowering benefits of statin therapy, considerable heterogeneity exists in individual responses to the same treatment. Human gut bacteria are known to metabolize statins in vitro, but there is limited information on how microbiome composition may contribute to statin on-target and/or adverse effects. Here, the authors identify a novel blood-based biomarker for …

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