Trimethylamine-N-Oxide Promotes Age-Related Vascular Oxidative Stress and Endothelial Dysfunction in Mice and Healthy Humans

Age-related vascular endothelial dysfunction is a major antecedent to cardiovascular diseases. We investigated whether increased circulating levels of the gut microbiome-generated metabolite trimethylamine-N-oxide induces endothelial dysfunction with aging. In healthy humans, plasma trimethylamine-N-oxide was higher in middle-aged/older (64±7 years) versus young (22±2 years) adults (6.5±0.7 versus 1.6±0.2 µmol/L) and inversely related to brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (r2=0.29, P<0.00001). In young mice, 6 months of dietary … Continue reading Trimethylamine-N-Oxide Promotes Age-Related Vascular Oxidative Stress and Endothelial Dysfunction in Mice and Healthy Humans

Intratumoral accumulation of gut #microbiota facilitates CD47-based immunotherapy via STING signaling

..Using one defined anaerobic gut microbiota to track whether microbiota interact with host immunity, we observed that Bifidobacterium facilitates local anti-CD47 immunotherapy on tumor tissues through the capacity to accumulate within the tumor microenvironment. Systemic administration of Bifidobacterium leads to its accumulation within the tumor and converts the nonresponder mice into responders to anti-CD47 immunotherapy in a stimulator of interferon genes (STING)– and interferon-dependent fashion. … Continue reading Intratumoral accumulation of gut #microbiota facilitates CD47-based immunotherapy via STING signaling

Type 2 #diabetes influences bacterial tissue compartmentalisation in human obesity

..Visceral obesity is a key risk factor for type 2 diabetes (T2D). Whereas gut dysbiosis appears to be instrumental for this relationship, whether gut-associated signatures translocate to extra-intestinal tissues and how this affects host metabolism remain elusive ..We identified tissue-specific signatures with higher bacterial load in the liver and omental adipose tissue. Gut commensals, but also environmental bacteria, showed tissue- and T2D-specific compartmentalisation. T2D signatures … Continue reading Type 2 #diabetes influences bacterial tissue compartmentalisation in human obesity

#Dysbiosis-Induced Secondary Bile Acid Deficiency Promotes Intestinal Inflammation

Secondary bile acids (SBAs) are derived from primary bile acids (PBAs) in a process reliant on biosynthetic capabilities possessed by few microbes. To evaluate the role of BAs in intestinal inflammation, we performed metabolomic, microbiome, metagenomic, and transcriptomic profiling of stool from ileal pouches (surgically created resevoirs) in colectomy-treated patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) versus controls (familial adenomatous polyposis [FAP]). We show that relative to … Continue reading #Dysbiosis-Induced Secondary Bile Acid Deficiency Promotes Intestinal Inflammation

The intestinal #microbiota and #cardiovascular disease

The intestinal microbiota of human hosts is the community of microorganisms living in the small and, mainly, the large intestine of humans. This microbial ecosystem has co-evolved with humans across the millennia, has come to play an important interactive role in human physiology and has been aptly called our forgotten organ. Significant properties of the microbiota benefiting its host include energy harvest from food sources … Continue reading The intestinal #microbiota and #cardiovascular disease

Gut #microbiota composition during infancy and subsequent #behavioural outcomes

..The faecal microbiota were analysed at 1, 6, and 12 months of age. Behavioural outcomes were measured at 2 years of age. Findings In an unselected birth cohort, we found a clear association between decreased normalised abundance of Prevotella in faecal samples collected at 12 months of age and increased behavioural problems at 2 years, in particular Internalizing Problem scores. This association appeared independent of … Continue reading Gut #microbiota composition during infancy and subsequent #behavioural outcomes

#Mediterranean diet intervention alters the gut microbiome in older people reducing #frailty and improving health status: the NU-AGE 1-year dietary intervention across five European countries

..Adherence to the diet was associated with specific microbiome alterations. Taxa enriched by adherence to the diet were positively associated with several markers of lower frailty and improved cognitive function, and negatively associated with inflammatory markers including C-reactive protein and interleukin-17. Analysis of the inferred microbial metabolite profiles indicated that the diet-modulated microbiome change was associated with an increase in short/branch chained fatty acid production … Continue reading #Mediterranean diet intervention alters the gut microbiome in older people reducing #frailty and improving health status: the NU-AGE 1-year dietary intervention across five European countries

#Walnuts and Vegetable Oils Containing Oleic Acid Differentially Affect the Gut Microbiota and Associations with #Cardiovascular Risk Factors: Follow-up of a Randomized, Controlled, Feeding Trial in Adults at Risk for Cardiovascular Disease

..Forty-two adults at cardiovascular risk were included in a randomized, crossover, controlled-feeding trial that provided a 2-wk standard Western diet (SWD) run-in and three 6-wk isocaloric study diets: a diet containing whole walnuts (WD; 57–99 g/d walnuts; 2.7% ALA), a fatty acid–matched diet devoid of walnuts (walnut fatty acid–matched diet; WFMD; 2.6% ALA), and a diet replacing ALA with oleic acid without walnuts (oleic acid … Continue reading #Walnuts and Vegetable Oils Containing Oleic Acid Differentially Affect the Gut Microbiota and Associations with #Cardiovascular Risk Factors: Follow-up of a Randomized, Controlled, Feeding Trial in Adults at Risk for Cardiovascular Disease

Long-term benefit of #Microbiota Transfer Therapy on #autism symptoms and gut microbiota

Many studies have reported abnormal gut microbiota in individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD), suggesting a link between gut microbiome and autism-like behaviors. Modifying the gut microbiome is a potential route to improve gastrointestinal (GI) and behavioral symptoms in children with ASD, and fecal microbiota transplant could transform the dysbiotic gut microbiome toward a healthy one by delivering a large number of commensal microbes from … Continue reading Long-term benefit of #Microbiota Transfer Therapy on #autism symptoms and gut microbiota