Adherent-invasive E. coli metabolism of propanediol in #Crohn’s disease regulates phagocytes to drive intestinal #inflammation

Adherent-invasive E. coli (AIEC) are enriched in the intestinal microbiota of patients with Crohn’s disease (CD) and promote intestinal inflammation. Yet, how AIEC metabolism of nutrients impacts intestinal homeostasis is poorly defined. Here, we show that AIEC encoding the large subunit of propanediol dehydratase (PduC), which facilitates the utilization of fucose fermentation product 1,2-propanediol, are increased in the microbiome of CD patients and drive AIEC-induced … Continue reading Adherent-invasive E. coli metabolism of propanediol in #Crohn’s disease regulates phagocytes to drive intestinal #inflammation

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Fecal #microbiota transplant overcomes resistance to anti–PD-1 therapy in #melanoma patients

Anti–programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) therapy provides long-term clinical benefits to patients with advanced melanoma. The composition of the gut microbiota correlates with anti–PD-1 efficacy in preclinical models and cancer patients. To investigate whether resistance to anti–PD-1 can be overcome by changing the gut microbiota, this clinical trial evaluated the safety and efficacy of responder-derived fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) together with anti–PD-1 in patients … Continue reading Fecal #microbiota transplant overcomes resistance to anti–PD-1 therapy in #melanoma patients

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A neurotransmitter produced by #gut bacteria modulates host sensory #behaviour

Animals coexist in commensal, pathogenic or mutualistic relationships with complex communities of diverse organisms, including microorganisms. Some bacteria produce bioactive neurotransmitters that have previously been proposed to modulate nervous system activity and behaviours of their hosts. However, the mechanistic basis of this microbiota–brain signalling and its physiological relevance are largely unknown. Here we show that in Caenorhabditis elegans, the neuromodulator tyramine produced by commensal Providencia … Continue reading A neurotransmitter produced by #gut bacteria modulates host sensory #behaviour

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#Microbiome connections with host metabolism and habitual #diet from 1,098 deeply phenotyped individuals

The gut microbiome is shaped by diet and influences host metabolism; however, these links are complex and can be unique to each individual. We performed deep metagenomic sequencing of 1,203 gut microbiomes from 1,098 individuals enrolled in the Personalised Responses to Dietary Composition Trial (PREDICT 1) study, whose detailed long-term diet information, as well as hundreds of fasting and same-meal postprandial cardiometabolic blood marker measurements … Continue reading #Microbiome connections with host metabolism and habitual #diet from 1,098 deeply phenotyped individuals

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#Avocado Consumption Alters Gastrointestinal #Bacteria Abundance and Microbial Metabolite Concentrations among Adults with Overweight or #Obesity: A Randomized Controlled Trial

Avocados are rich in dietary fiber and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs), nutrients that have been independently connected to metabolic health benefits and the gastrointestinal microbiota. Objectives We aimed to evaluate the impact of avocado consumption on the gastrointestinal microbiota and microbial metabolites, secondary outcomes of the Persea americana for Total Health (PATH) study, and conduct exploratory analyses to assess relations between the fecal microbiota, fecal … Continue reading #Avocado Consumption Alters Gastrointestinal #Bacteria Abundance and Microbial Metabolite Concentrations among Adults with Overweight or #Obesity: A Randomized Controlled Trial

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Gut #microbiota depletion by chronic #antibiotic treatment alters the sleep/wake architecture and #sleep EEG power spectra in mice

Dysbiosis of the gut microbiota affects physiological processes, including brain functions, by altering the intestinal metabolism. Here we examined the effects of the gut microbiota on sleep/wake regulation. C57BL/6 male mice were treated with broad-spectrum antibiotics for 4 weeks to deplete their gut microbiota. Metabolome profiling of cecal contents in antibiotic-induced microbiota-depleted (AIMD) and control mice showed significant variations in the metabolism of amino acids … Continue reading Gut #microbiota depletion by chronic #antibiotic treatment alters the sleep/wake architecture and #sleep EEG power spectra in mice

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Effects of #probiotics on gut #microbiota: mechanisms of intestinal immunomodulation and neuromodulation

Recent explorations of the human gut microbiota suggest that perturbations of microbial communities may increase predisposition to different disease phenotypes. Dietary nutrients may be converted into metabolites by intestinal microbes that serve as biologically active molecules affecting regulatory functions in the host. Probiotics may restore the composition of the gut microbiome and introduce beneficial functions to gut microbial communities, resulting in amelioration or prevention of … Continue reading Effects of #probiotics on gut #microbiota: mechanisms of intestinal immunomodulation and neuromodulation

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Vitamin #D metabolites and the gut #microbiome in older men

The vitamin D receptor is highly expressed in the gastrointestinal tract where it transacts gene expression. With current limited understanding of the interactions between the gut microbiome and vitamin D, we conduct a cross-sectional analysis of 567 older men quantifying serum vitamin D metabolites using LC-MSMS and defining stool sub-Operational Taxonomic Units from16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing data. Faith’s Phylogenetic Diversity and non-redundant covariate analyses … Continue reading Vitamin #D metabolites and the gut #microbiome in older men

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Gut #microbiota depletion by chronic antibiotic treatment alters the #sleep/wake architecture and sleep #EEG power spectra in mice

Dysbiosis of the gut microbiota affects physiological processes, including brain functions, by altering the intestinal metabolism. Here we examined the effects of the gut microbiota on sleep/wake regulation. C57BL/6 male mice were treated with broad-spectrum antibiotics for 4 weeks to deplete their gut microbiota. Metabolome profiling of cecal contents in antibiotic-induced microbiota-depleted (AIMD) and control mice showed significant variations in the metabolism of amino acids … Continue reading Gut #microbiota depletion by chronic antibiotic treatment alters the #sleep/wake architecture and sleep #EEG power spectra in mice

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The gut #microbiota is associated with #immune cell dynamics in humans

The gut microbiota influences development and homeostasis of the mammalian immune system, and is associated with human inflammatory and immune diseases as well as responses to immunotherapy. Nevertheless, our understanding of how gut bacteria modulate the immune system remains limited, particularly in humans, where the difficulty of direct experimentation makes inference challenging. Here we study hundreds of hospitalized—and closely monitored—patients with cancer receiving haematopoietic cell … Continue reading The gut #microbiota is associated with #immune cell dynamics in humans

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Dietary #Fructose Alters the Composition, Localization and Metabolism of Gut #Microbiota in Association with Worsening #Colitis

The incidence of inflammatory bowel diseases has increased over the last half century, suggesting a role for dietary factors. Fructose consumption has increased in recent years. Recently, a high fructose diet (HFrD) was shown to enhance DSS-induced colitis in mice. The primary objectives of the current study were to elucidate the mechanism(s) underlying the pro-colitic effects of dietary fructose and to determine whether this effect … Continue reading Dietary #Fructose Alters the Composition, Localization and Metabolism of Gut #Microbiota in Association with Worsening #Colitis

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Depicting #SARS-CoV-2 faecal viral activity in association with #gut microbiota composition in patients with COVID-19

Although severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) RNA was detected in faeces of patients with COVID-19, the activity and infectivity of the virus in the GI tract during disease course is largely unknown. We investigated temporal transcriptional activity of SARS-CoV-2 and its association with longitudinal faecal microbiome alterations in patients with COVID-19.. Seven (46.7%) of 15 patients with COVID-19 had stool positivity for SARS-CoV-2 … Continue reading Depicting #SARS-CoV-2 faecal viral activity in association with #gut microbiota composition in patients with COVID-19

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