Dietary #Fructose Alters the Composition, Localization and Metabolism of Gut #Microbiota in Association with Worsening #Colitis

The incidence of inflammatory bowel diseases has increased over the last half century, suggesting a role for dietary factors. Fructose consumption has increased in recent years. Recently, a high fructose diet (HFrD) was shown to enhance DSS-induced colitis in mice. The primary objectives of the current study were to elucidate the mechanism(s) underlying the pro-colitic effects of dietary fructose and to determine whether this effect … Continue reading Dietary #Fructose Alters the Composition, Localization and Metabolism of Gut #Microbiota in Association with Worsening #Colitis

Depicting #SARS-CoV-2 faecal viral activity in association with #gut microbiota composition in patients with COVID-19

Although severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) RNA was detected in faeces of patients with COVID-19, the activity and infectivity of the virus in the GI tract during disease course is largely unknown. We investigated temporal transcriptional activity of SARS-CoV-2 and its association with longitudinal faecal microbiome alterations in patients with COVID-19.. Seven (46.7%) of 15 patients with COVID-19 had stool positivity for SARS-CoV-2 … Continue reading Depicting #SARS-CoV-2 faecal viral activity in association with #gut microbiota composition in patients with COVID-19

Warmth Prevents #Bone Loss Through the Gut #Microbiota

Osteoporosis is the most prevalent metabolic bone disease, characterized by low bone mass and microarchitectural deterioration. Here, we show that warmth exposure (34°C) protects against ovariectomy-induced bone loss by increasing trabecular bone volume, connectivity density, and thickness, leading to improved biomechanical bone strength in adult female, as well as in young male mice. Transplantation of the warm-adapted microbiota phenocopies the warmth-induced bone effects. Both warmth … Continue reading Warmth Prevents #Bone Loss Through the Gut #Microbiota

Association Between the Gut #Microbiota and Blood #Pressure in a Population Cohort of 6953 Individuals

Several small‐scale animal studies have suggested that gut microbiota and blood pressure (BP) are linked. However, results from human studies remain scarce and conflicting. We wanted to elucidate the multivariable‐adjusted association between gut metagenome and BP in a large, representative, well‐phenotyped population sample. We performed a focused analysis to examine the previously reported inverse associations between sodium intake and Lactobacillus abundance and between Lactobacillus abundance … Continue reading Association Between the Gut #Microbiota and Blood #Pressure in a Population Cohort of 6953 Individuals

High-Fat Diet and Antibiotics Cooperatively Impair Mitochondrial Bioenergetics to Trigger #Dysbiosis that Exacerbates Pre-inflammatory Bowel Disease

The clinical spectra of irritable bowel syndrome (#IBS) and inflammatory bowel disease (#IBD) intersect to form a scantily defined overlap syndrome, termed pre-IBD. We show that increased Enterobacteriaceae and reduced Clostridia abundance distinguish the fecal microbiota of pre-IBD patients from IBS patients. A history of antibiotics in individuals consuming a high-fat diet was associated with the greatest risk for pre-IBD. Exposing mice to these risk … Continue reading High-Fat Diet and Antibiotics Cooperatively Impair Mitochondrial Bioenergetics to Trigger #Dysbiosis that Exacerbates Pre-inflammatory Bowel Disease

Trimethylamine-N-Oxide Promotes Age-Related Vascular Oxidative Stress and Endothelial Dysfunction in Mice and Healthy Humans

Age-related vascular endothelial dysfunction is a major antecedent to cardiovascular diseases. We investigated whether increased circulating levels of the gut microbiome-generated metabolite trimethylamine-N-oxide induces endothelial dysfunction with aging. In healthy humans, plasma trimethylamine-N-oxide was higher in middle-aged/older (64±7 years) versus young (22±2 years) adults (6.5±0.7 versus 1.6±0.2 µmol/L) and inversely related to brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (r2=0.29, P<0.00001). In young mice, 6 months of dietary … Continue reading Trimethylamine-N-Oxide Promotes Age-Related Vascular Oxidative Stress and Endothelial Dysfunction in Mice and Healthy Humans

Intratumoral accumulation of gut #microbiota facilitates CD47-based immunotherapy via STING signaling

..Using one defined anaerobic gut microbiota to track whether microbiota interact with host immunity, we observed that Bifidobacterium facilitates local anti-CD47 immunotherapy on tumor tissues through the capacity to accumulate within the tumor microenvironment. Systemic administration of Bifidobacterium leads to its accumulation within the tumor and converts the nonresponder mice into responders to anti-CD47 immunotherapy in a stimulator of interferon genes (STING)– and interferon-dependent fashion. … Continue reading Intratumoral accumulation of gut #microbiota facilitates CD47-based immunotherapy via STING signaling

Type 2 #diabetes influences bacterial tissue compartmentalisation in human obesity

..Visceral obesity is a key risk factor for type 2 diabetes (T2D). Whereas gut dysbiosis appears to be instrumental for this relationship, whether gut-associated signatures translocate to extra-intestinal tissues and how this affects host metabolism remain elusive ..We identified tissue-specific signatures with higher bacterial load in the liver and omental adipose tissue. Gut commensals, but also environmental bacteria, showed tissue- and T2D-specific compartmentalisation. T2D signatures … Continue reading Type 2 #diabetes influences bacterial tissue compartmentalisation in human obesity

#Dysbiosis-Induced Secondary Bile Acid Deficiency Promotes Intestinal Inflammation

Secondary bile acids (SBAs) are derived from primary bile acids (PBAs) in a process reliant on biosynthetic capabilities possessed by few microbes. To evaluate the role of BAs in intestinal inflammation, we performed metabolomic, microbiome, metagenomic, and transcriptomic profiling of stool from ileal pouches (surgically created resevoirs) in colectomy-treated patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) versus controls (familial adenomatous polyposis [FAP]). We show that relative to … Continue reading #Dysbiosis-Induced Secondary Bile Acid Deficiency Promotes Intestinal Inflammation

The intestinal #microbiota and #cardiovascular disease

The intestinal microbiota of human hosts is the community of microorganisms living in the small and, mainly, the large intestine of humans. This microbial ecosystem has co-evolved with humans across the millennia, has come to play an important interactive role in human physiology and has been aptly called our forgotten organ. Significant properties of the microbiota benefiting its host include energy harvest from food sources … Continue reading The intestinal #microbiota and #cardiovascular disease

Gut #microbiota composition during infancy and subsequent #behavioural outcomes

..The faecal microbiota were analysed at 1, 6, and 12 months of age. Behavioural outcomes were measured at 2 years of age. Findings In an unselected birth cohort, we found a clear association between decreased normalised abundance of Prevotella in faecal samples collected at 12 months of age and increased behavioural problems at 2 years, in particular Internalizing Problem scores. This association appeared independent of … Continue reading Gut #microbiota composition during infancy and subsequent #behavioural outcomes

#Mediterranean diet intervention alters the gut microbiome in older people reducing #frailty and improving health status: the NU-AGE 1-year dietary intervention across five European countries

..Adherence to the diet was associated with specific microbiome alterations. Taxa enriched by adherence to the diet were positively associated with several markers of lower frailty and improved cognitive function, and negatively associated with inflammatory markers including C-reactive protein and interleukin-17. Analysis of the inferred microbial metabolite profiles indicated that the diet-modulated microbiome change was associated with an increase in short/branch chained fatty acid production … Continue reading #Mediterranean diet intervention alters the gut microbiome in older people reducing #frailty and improving health status: the NU-AGE 1-year dietary intervention across five European countries