Analysis of Active and Passive #Tobacco Exposures and Blood #Pressure in US Children and Adolescents

..Elevated blood pressure, classified as greater than 90% for a child’s age, sex, and height according to the 2017 American Academy of Pediatrics Clinical Practice Guidelines. The a priori hypothesis that there is a positive association between tobacco exposure and elevated blood pressure in the study population was tested. Analysis included logistic regression with adjustment for possible confounders. Subgroup and sensitivity analyses were conducted.

Results A total of 8520 children were included in the analysis, representing 41 million US children. The mean (SD) age of the participants was 13.1 (0.05) years, 51% (95% CI, 49%-52%) were male, and 58% (95% CI, 54%-62%) were non-Hispanic White individuals. Participants with any tobacco smoke exposure were more likely than those without exposure to be older (mean [SD] age, 13.3 [0.07] years vs 12.8 [0.06] years), male (53% [95% CI, 51%-55%] vs 49% [95% CI, 47%-50%]), and non-Hispanic Black individuals (19% [95% CI, 16%-22%] vs 10% [95% CI, 8%-12%]). The odds of having elevated blood pressure was 1.31 (95% CI, 1.06-1.61) for any tobacco exposure after adjustment; odds were similar across subgroups and remained significant in multiple sensitivity analyses.

Conclusions and Relevance This study suggests that tobacco exposure is associated with elevated blood pressure in US children and adolescents. This modifiable risk factor represents a target for further research into reducing hypertension in children and adolescents.