Longer #commutes are associated with increased human exposure to tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate

Organophosphate esters (OPEs) are a class of semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) used as flame retardants, plasticizers, and anti-foaming agents. Due to stringent flammability standards in vehicles and the ability of OPEs to migrate out of end-use products, elevated concentrations of OPEs have been found in car dust samples around the world.. ..Moreover, the concentration of tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCIPP) was significantly correlated with the concentration of … Continue reading Longer #commutes are associated with increased human exposure to tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate

Association between financial links to indoor #tanning industry and conclusions of published studies on indoor tanning: systematic review

..Among the articles without industry funding, 4.4% (27/620) favored indoor tanning, 3.5% (22/620) were neutral, and 92.1% (571/620) were critical of indoor tanning. Among the articles with financial links to the indoor tanning industry, 78% (39/50) favored indoor tanning, 10% (5/50) were neutral, and 12% (6/50) were critical of indoor tanning. Support from the indoor tanning industry was significantly associated with favoring indoor tanning (risk … Continue reading Association between financial links to indoor #tanning industry and conclusions of published studies on indoor tanning: systematic review

#Alarm tones, music and their elements: Analysis of reported waking sounds to counteract #sleep inertia

Sleep inertia is a potentially dangerous reduction in human alertness and occurs 0–4 hours after waking. The type of sound people set as their alarm for waking has been shown to reduce the effects of sleep inertia, however, the elemental musical factors that underpin these waking sounds and their relationships remain unclear.. ..However, the analysis did reveal that a sound which is ranked as melodic … Continue reading #Alarm tones, music and their elements: Analysis of reported waking sounds to counteract #sleep inertia

Plight of the distracted #pedestrian: a research synthesis and meta-analysis of mobile #phone use on crossing behaviour

Pedestrians are commonly involved in vehicle collisions that result in injuries and fatalities. Pedestrian distraction has become an emerging safety issue as more pedestrians use their mobile phones while walking and crossing the street. ..Fourteen experimental studies were ultimately included in an N-weighted meta-analysis (k=81 effect sizes), and eight observational studies were included in a qualitative overview. Both mobile phone conversation and text messaging increased … Continue reading Plight of the distracted #pedestrian: a research synthesis and meta-analysis of mobile #phone use on crossing behaviour

Effect of #Sunscreen Application on Plasma Concentration of Sunscreen Active Ingredients

To assess the systemic absorption and pharmacokinetics of the 6 active ingredients (avobenzone, oxybenzone, octocrylene, homosalate, octisalate, and octinoxate) in 4 sunscreen products under single- and maximal-use conditions.. Geometric mean maximum plasma concentrations of all 6 active ingredients were greater than 0.5 ng/mL, and this threshold was surpassed on day 1 after a single application for all active ingredients.. In this study conducted in a … Continue reading Effect of #Sunscreen Application on Plasma Concentration of Sunscreen Active Ingredients

Prevention of #tuberculosis in macaques after intravenous BCG immunization

Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is the leading cause of death from infection worldwide. The only available vaccine, BCG (Bacillus Calmette–Guérin), is given intradermally and has variable efficacy against pulmonary tuberculosis, the major cause of mortality and disease transmission. Here we show that intravenous administration of BCG profoundly alters the protective outcome of Mtb challenge in non-human primates (Macaca mulatta). Compared with intradermal or aerosol delivery, intravenous … Continue reading Prevention of #tuberculosis in macaques after intravenous BCG immunization

Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol exposure during rat pregnancy leads to symmetrical fetal growth restriction and labyrinth-specific vascular defects in the placenta

1 in 5 women report cannabis use during pregnancy, with nausea cited as their primary motivation. Studies show that (-)-△9–tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC), the major psychoactive ingredient in cannabis, causes fetal growth restriction, though the mechanisms are not well understood.. The goal of this study was to examine, in rats, the impact of maternal Δ9-THC exposure on fetal development, neonatal outcomes, and placental development.. ..Further, at E19.5 … Continue reading Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol exposure during rat pregnancy leads to symmetrical fetal growth restriction and labyrinth-specific vascular defects in the placenta

Decreasing human body #temperature in the United States since the industrial revolution

In 1851, the German In 1851, the German physician Carl Reinhold August Wunderlich obtained millions of axillary temperatures from 25,000 patients in Leipzig, thereby establishing the standard for normal human body temperature of 37°C or 98.6 °F (range: 36.2–37.5°C [97.2- 99.5 °F]) (Mackowiak, 1997; Wunderlich and Sequin, 1871). A compilation of 27 modern studies, however (Sund-Levander et al., 2002), reported mean temperature to be uniformly … Continue reading Decreasing human body #temperature in the United States since the industrial revolution

Association of Ambient and Household Air #Pollution With #Bone Mineral Content Among Adults in Peri-urban South India

..The annual mean (SD) PM2.5 exposure was 32.8 (2.5) μg/m3, and the annual mean (SD) BC exposure was 2.5 (0.2) μg/m3; 57.8% of participants used biomass cooking fuels. In fully adjusted models, PM2.5 was associated with lower BMC in the spine (mean difference, −0.57 g per 3 μg/m3 increase in PM2.5; 95% CI, −1.06 to −0.07 g per 3 μg/m3 increase in PM2.5) and hip … Continue reading Association of Ambient and Household Air #Pollution With #Bone Mineral Content Among Adults in Peri-urban South India

Association between ambient fine #particulate pollution and hospital admissions for cause specific #cardiovascular disease: time series study in 184 major Chinese cities

..At the national average level, an increase of 10 μg/m3 in PM2.5 was associated with a 0.26% (95% confidence interval 0.17% to 0.35%) increase in hospital admissions on the same day for cardiovascular disease, 0.31% (0.22% to 0.40%) for ischaemic heart disease, 0.27% (0.04% to 0.51%) for heart failure, 0.29% (0.12% to 0.46%) for heart rhythm disturbances, and 0.29% (0.18% to 0.40%) for ischaemic stroke, … Continue reading Association between ambient fine #particulate pollution and hospital admissions for cause specific #cardiovascular disease: time series study in 184 major Chinese cities

Association Between #Automotive Assembly Plant Closures and #Opioid Overdose Mortality in the United States

..Automotive assembly plant closures are culturally significant events that substantially erode local economic opportunities. ..Automotive assembly plant closures were associated with statistically significant increases in opioid overdose mortality. Five years after a plant closure, mortality rates had increased by 8.6 opioid overdose deaths per 100 000 individuals (95% CI, 2.6-14.6; P = .006) in exposed counties compared with unexposed counties, an 85% increase relative to the mortality rate … Continue reading Association Between #Automotive Assembly Plant Closures and #Opioid Overdose Mortality in the United States