Although, evolutionarily, language emerged predominantly for social purposes, much has yet to be uncovered regarding how language processing is affected by social context. Social presence research studies the ways in which the presence of a conspecific affects processing, but has yet to be thoroughly applied to language processes. The principal aim of this study was to see how syntactic and semantic language processing might be … Continue reading #Language comprehension in the social #brain: Electrophysiological brain signals of social presence effects during syntactic and semantic sentence processing
The COVID-19 pandemic is a collective stressor unfolding over time, yet rigorous published empirical studies addressing mental health consequences of COVID-19 among large probability-based national samples are rare. Between 3/18-4/18/20, during an escalating period of illness and death in the United States, we assessed acute stress, depressive symptoms and direct, community, and media-based exposures to COVID-19 in three consecutive representative samples across three 10-day periods … Continue reading The unfolding #COVID-19 pandemic: A probability-based, nationally representative study of #mental health in the U.S.
The current opioid epidemic necessitates a better understanding of human addiction neurobiology to develop efficacious treatment approaches. Here, we perform genome-wide assessment of chromatin accessibility of the human striatum in heroin users and matched controls. Our study reveals distinct neuronal and non-neuronal epigenetic signatures, and identifies a locus in the proximity of the gene encoding tyrosine kinase FYN as the most affected region in neurons. … Continue reading Chromatin accessibility mapping of the striatum identifies tyrosine kinase FYN as a therapeutic target for #heroin use disorder
Positive social connections improve wellbeing. Technology increasingly affords a wide variety of media that people can use to connect with others, but not all media strengthen social connection equally. Optimizing wellbeing, therefore, requires choosing how to connect with others wisely. We predicted that people’s preferences for communication media would be at least partly guided by the expected costs and benefits of the interaction—specifically, how awkward … Continue reading It’s surprisingly nice to hear you: Misunderstanding the impact of #communication media can lead to suboptimal choices of how to connect with others.
Osteoporosis is the most prevalent metabolic bone disease, characterized by low bone mass and microarchitectural deterioration. Here, we show that warmth exposure (34°C) protects against ovariectomy-induced bone loss by increasing trabecular bone volume, connectivity density, and thickness, leading to improved biomechanical bone strength in adult female, as well as in young male mice. Transplantation of the warm-adapted microbiota phenocopies the warmth-induced bone effects. Both warmth … Continue reading Warmth Prevents #Bone Loss Through the Gut #Microbiota
Ever users of permanent hair dyes had no significant increases in risk of solid cancers (n=20 805, excluding non-melanoma skin cancers; hazard ratio 0.98, 95% confidence interval 0.96 to 1.01) or hematopoietic cancers overall (n=1807; 1.00, 0.91 to 1.10) compared with non-users. Additionally, ever users did not have an increased risk of most specific cancers (cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma, bladder cancer, melanoma, estrogen receptor positive breast … Continue reading Personal use of permanent hair #dyes and #cancer risk and mortality in US women: prospective cohort study
Contaminants such as heavy metals may contribute to the dissemination of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) by enriching resistance gene determinants via co‐selection mechanisms. In the present study, a survey was performed on soils collected from four areas at the Savannah River Site (SRS), South Carolina, USA, with varying contaminant profiles: relatively pristine (Upper Three Runs), heavy metals (Ash Basins), radionuclides (Pond B) and heavy metal and … Continue reading Co‐occurrence of #antibiotic, biocide, and heavy #metal resistance genes in bacteria from metal and radionuclide contaminated soils at the Savannah River Site
There is limited information about the clinical course and viral load in asymptomatic patients infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2).. Epidemiologic, demographic, and laboratory data were collected and analyzed. Attending health care personnel carefully identified patients’ symptoms during isolation. The decision to release an individual from isolation was based on the results of reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay from upper respiratory … Continue reading Clinical Course and Molecular Viral Shedding Among Asymptomatic and Symptomatic Patients With #SARS-CoV-2 Infection in a Community Treatment Center in the Republic of Korea
Many unknowns exist about human immune responses to the SARS-CoV-2 virus. SARS-CoV-2 reactive CD4+ T cells have been reported in unexposed individuals, suggesting pre-existing cross-reactive T cell memory in 20-50% of people. However, the source of those T cells has been speculative. Using human blood samples derived before the SARS-CoV-2 virus was discovered in 2019, we mapped 142 T cell epitopes across the SARS-CoV-2 genome … Continue reading Selective and cross-reactive #SARS-CoV-2 #T cell epitopes in unexposed humans
The recently discovered novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19 virus), has brought the whole world to standstill with critical challenges, affecting both health and economic sectors worldwide. Although initially, this pandemic was associated with causing severe pulmonary and respiratory disorders, recent case studies reported the association of cerebrovascular-neurological dysfunction in COVID-19 patients, which is also life-threatening. Several SARS-CoV-2 positive case studies have been reported where there are … Continue reading #Cerebrovascular and Neurological Dysfunction under the Threat of #COVID-19: Is There a Comorbid Role for #Smoking and Vaping?
Transmission of COVID-19 within families and close contacts accounts for the majority of epidemic growth. Community mask wearing, hand washing and social distancing are thought to be effective but there is little evidence to inform or support community members on COVID-19 risk reduction within families.. ..The secondary attack rate in families was 23.0% (77/335). Face mask use by the primary case and family contacts before … Continue reading Reduction of secondary transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in households by face mask use, disinfection and social distancing: a cohort study in Beijing, China
In many cases, interactions among host, pathogen, and environment are insufficient to describe disease dynamics in the wild. The host microbiome plays an important role in host immunity, at the interface between the host and the pathogen, and affects disease outcome. The environment, as well as environmental microbiomes, influence the host microbiome, and also influence simultaneously the host and the pathogen. The three-edged disease triangle … Continue reading Environmental Factors and Host Microbiomes Shape Host–Pathogen Dynamics