Association Between Maternal #Caffeine Consumption and Metabolism and Neonatal Anthropometry

Higher caffeine consumption during pregnancy has been associated with lower birth weight. However, associations of caffeine consumption, based on both plasma concentrations of caffeine and its metabolites, and self-reported caffeinated beverage intake, with multiple measures of neonatal anthropometry, have yet to be examined. Objective To evaluate the association between maternal caffeine intake and neonatal anthropometry, testing effect modification by fast or slow caffeine metabolism genotype. … Continue reading Association Between Maternal #Caffeine Consumption and Metabolism and Neonatal Anthropometry

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Short-Course #Antimicrobial Therapy for Pediatric Community-Acquired #Pneumonia The SAFER Randomized Clinical Trial

Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a common occurrence in childhood; consequently, evidence-based recommendations for its treatment are required. Objective To determine whether 5 days of high-dose amoxicillin for CAP was associated with noninferior rates of clinical cure compared with 10 days of high-dose amoxicillin. Design, Setting, and Participants The SAFER (Short-Course Antimicrobial Therapy for Pediatric Respiratory Infections) study was a 2-center, parallel-group, noninferiority randomized clinical trial … Continue reading Short-Course #Antimicrobial Therapy for Pediatric Community-Acquired #Pneumonia The SAFER Randomized Clinical Trial

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Analysis of Active and Passive #Tobacco Exposures and Blood #Pressure in US Children and Adolescents

..Elevated blood pressure, classified as greater than 90% for a child’s age, sex, and height according to the 2017 American Academy of Pediatrics Clinical Practice Guidelines. The a priori hypothesis that there is a positive association between tobacco exposure and elevated blood pressure in the study population was tested. Analysis included logistic regression with adjustment for possible confounders. Subgroup and sensitivity analyses were conducted. Results … Continue reading Analysis of Active and Passive #Tobacco Exposures and Blood #Pressure in US Children and Adolescents

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#Antibiotic exposure during pregnancy and childhood #asthma: a national birth cohort study investigating timing of exposure and mode of delivery

…A total of 5522 (17%) children were born to mothers exposed to antibiotics during pregnancy. In adjusted analyses, children born to exposed mothers had higher odds of asthma (OR 1.14, 95% CI 1.05 to 1.24). There was no association with antibiotic exposure in the first trimester (OR 1.02, 95% CI 0.83 to 1.26), but higher odds were observed for antibiotic exposure in the second to … Continue reading #Antibiotic exposure during pregnancy and childhood #asthma: a national birth cohort study investigating timing of exposure and mode of delivery

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A Little #Autonomy Support Goes a Long Way: Daily Autonomy‐Supportive Parenting, Child Well‐Being, Parental Need Fulfillment, and Change in Child, Family, and Parent Adjustment Across the Adaptation to the #COVID‐19 Pandemic

This study examined the effects of daily parental autonomy support on changes in child behavior, family environment, and parental well‐being across 3 weeks during the COVID‐19 pandemic in Germany. Day‐to‐day associations among autonomy‐supportive parenting, parental need fulfillment, and child well‐being were also assessed. Parents (longitudinal N = 469; Mage = 42.93, SDage = 6.40) of school children (6–19 years) reported on adjustment measures at two … Continue reading A Little #Autonomy Support Goes a Long Way: Daily Autonomy‐Supportive Parenting, Child Well‐Being, Parental Need Fulfillment, and Change in Child, Family, and Parent Adjustment Across the Adaptation to the #COVID‐19 Pandemic

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Association of Maternal #Autoimmune Disease With #Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Children

Maternal autoimmune disease has been associated with increased risk of neurodevelopmental disorders in offspring, but few studies have assessed the association with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).. ..In the population-based cohort analysis, 831 718 singleton, term infants born to 831 718 mothers (mean [SD] age, 29.8 [5.6] years) were assessed. Of 12 767 infants (1.5%) who were linked to a maternal autoimmune diagnosis, 12 610 were propensity score matched to 50 440 … Continue reading Association of Maternal #Autoimmune Disease With #Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Children

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Identification and Management of #Eating Disorders in Children and #Adolescents

Eating disorders are serious, potentially life-threatening illnesses afflicting individuals through the life span, with a particular impact on both the physical and psychological development of children and adolescents. Because care for children and adolescents with eating disorders can be complex and resources for the treatment of eating disorders are often limited, pediatricians may be called on to not only provide medical supervision for their patients … Continue reading Identification and Management of #Eating Disorders in Children and #Adolescents

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Comparison of #Acetaminophen (Paracetamol) With #Ibuprofen for Treatment of Fever or Pain in Children Younger Than 2 Years

Acetaminophen (paracetamol) and ibuprofen are the most widely prescribed and available over-the-counter medications for management of fever and pain in children. Despite the common use of these medications, treatment recommendations for young children remain divergent.. ..Overall, 19 studies (11 randomized; 8 nonrandomized) of 241 138 participants from 7 countries and various health care settings (hospital-based and community-based) were included. Compared with acetaminophen, ibuprofen resulted in reduced … Continue reading Comparison of #Acetaminophen (Paracetamol) With #Ibuprofen for Treatment of Fever or Pain in Children Younger Than 2 Years

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Association Between #Epidural Analgesia During Labor and Risk of #Autism Spectrum Disorders in Offspring

Although the safety of labor epidural analgesia (LEA) for neonates has been well documented, the long-term health effects of LEA on offspring remain to be investigated… ..Among the cohort of 147 895 singleton children (74 425 boys [50.3%]; mean [SD] gestational age at delivery, 38.9 [1.5] weeks), 109 719 (74.2%) were exposed to maternal LEA. Fever during labor was observed in 13 055 mothers (11.9%) in the LEA group … Continue reading Association Between #Epidural Analgesia During Labor and Risk of #Autism Spectrum Disorders in Offspring

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American Academy of Pediatrics – Section on Pediatric #Pulmonology and #Sleep Medicine

1. Avoid stepping up asthma therapy (adding new drugs or going to higher doses) before assessing adherence, appropriateness of device, and technique with current asthma medications. 2. Do not use LABA/steroid combination drugs as initial therapy for intermittent or mild persistent asthma. 3. Avoid administering nebulized medications by “blow by,” or placing the mask or nebulizer tubing near the child’s nose and mouth rather than … Continue reading American Academy of Pediatrics – Section on Pediatric #Pulmonology and #Sleep Medicine

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Reducing #Antibiotic Prescribing in Primary Care for #Respiratory Illness

One-third of outpatient antibiotic prescriptions for pediatric acute respiratory tract infections (ARTIs) are inappropriate. We evaluated a distance learning program’s effectiveness for reducing outpatient antibiotic prescribing for ARTI visits.. In this stepped-wedge clinical trial run from November 2015 to June 2018, we randomly assigned 19 pediatric practices belonging to the Pediatric Research in Office Settings Network or the NorthShore University HealthSystem to 4 wedges. Visits … Continue reading Reducing #Antibiotic Prescribing in Primary Care for #Respiratory Illness

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Fine Particulate Matter Air #Pollution and Mortality among Pediatric, Adolescent, and Young Adult Cancer Patients

Air pollution is a carcinogen and causes pulmonary and cardiac complications. We examined the association of fine particulate matter pollution (PM2.5) and mortality from cancer and all causes among pediatric, adolescent, and young adult (AYA) patients with cancer in Utah, a state with considerable variation in PM2.5.. ..Increases in PM2.5 per 5 μg/m3 were associated with cancer mortality in pediatric lymphomas and central nervous system … Continue reading Fine Particulate Matter Air #Pollution and Mortality among Pediatric, Adolescent, and Young Adult Cancer Patients

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