Evidence is limited regarding the association between low-carbohydrate diet (LCD) score and mortality among Asians, a population that consumes a large amount of carbohydrates..
..A U-shaped association was observed between LCD score and total mortality: the multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) (95% CI) of total mortality for lowest through highest scores were 1.00, 0.95 (0.91, 1.01), 0.93 (0.88, 0.98), 0.93 (0.88, 0.98), and 1.01 (0.95, 1.07) (P-non-linearity <0.01). A similar association was found for mortality from cardiovascular disease (CVD) and heart disease. LCD score based on carbohydrate, animal protein, and animal fat also showed a U-shaped association for total mortality (P-non-linearity <0.01). In contrast, LCD score based on carbohydrate, plant protein, and plant fat was linearly associated with lower total (HR, 0.89; 95% CI: 0.83, 0.94 for highest versus lowest quintile), CVD [0.82 (0.73, 0.92)], heart disease [0.83 (0.71, 0.98;)], and cerebrovascular disease [0.75 (0.62, 0.91) mortality.
Both LCD with high animal protein and fat and high-carbohydrate diet with low animal protein and fat were associated with higher risk of mortality. Meanwhile, LCD high in plant-based sources of protein and fat was associated with a lower risk of total and CVD mortality.