#Vegetarian and #vegan diets and risks of total and site-specific #fractures: results from the prospective EPIC-Oxford study

There is limited prospective evidence on possible differences in fracture risks between vegetarians, vegans, and non-vegetarians. We aimed to study this in a prospective cohort with a large proportion of non-meat eaters.. ..Compared with meat eaters and after adjustment for socio-economic factors, lifestyle confounders, and body mass index (BMI), the risks of hip fracture were higher in fish eaters (hazard ratio 1.26; 95% CI 1.02–1.54), … Continue reading #Vegetarian and #vegan diets and risks of total and site-specific #fractures: results from the prospective EPIC-Oxford study

Effects of oral #semaglutide on energy intake, #food preference, #appetite, control of eating and body #weight in subjects with type 2 #diabetes

Aims To evaluate the effect of oral semaglutide on energy intake and appetite in subjects with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Materials and methods In this randomised, double‐blind, placebo‐controlled, two‐period cross‐over trial, 15 subjects with T2D received 12 weeks’ treatment with once‐daily oral semaglutide (4‐week dose‐escalation from 3 to 7 to 14 mg) followed by placebo, or vice versa. Energy intake was measured during an ad … Continue reading Effects of oral #semaglutide on energy intake, #food preference, #appetite, control of eating and body #weight in subjects with type 2 #diabetes

#Mediterranean diet, #stress resilience, and aging in nonhuman primates

Persistent psychological stress increases the risk of many chronic diseases of aging. Little progress has been made to effectively reduce stress responses or mitigate stress effects suggesting a need for better understanding of factors that influence stress responses. Limited evidence suggests that diet may be a factor in modifying the effects of stress. However, long-term studies of diet effects on stress reactive systems are not … Continue reading #Mediterranean diet, #stress resilience, and aging in nonhuman primates

Dietary Approaches to Stop #Hypertension Dietary Intervention Improves Blood Pressure and Vascular Health in Youth With Elevated Blood Pressure

This randomized control trial assessed the post-intervention and 18-month follow-up effects of a 6-month dietary approaches to stop hypertension (DASH)-focused behavioral nutrition intervention, initiated in clinic with subsequent telephone and mail contact, on blood pressure (BP) and endothelial function in adolescents with elevated BP. Adolescents (n=159) 11 to 18 years of age with newly diagnosed elevated BP or stage 1 hypertension treated at a hospital-based … Continue reading Dietary Approaches to Stop #Hypertension Dietary Intervention Improves Blood Pressure and Vascular Health in Youth With Elevated Blood Pressure

Effect of #caloric restriction with or without physical #activity on body composition and epicardial #fat in type 2 diabetic patients: a pilot randomized controlled trial

There is debate over the independent and combined effects of caloric restriction (CR) and physical activity (PA) on reduction in fat mass and in epicardial fat thickness. We compared the impact of a similar energy deficit prescription by CR or by CR combined with PA on total fat mass, epicardial fat thickness, and cardiometabolic profile in individuals with type 2 diabetes In this 16-week randomized … Continue reading Effect of #caloric restriction with or without physical #activity on body composition and epicardial #fat in type 2 diabetic patients: a pilot randomized controlled trial

A Placebo-Controlled Trial of Subcutaneous #Semaglutide in Nonalcoholic #Steatohepatitis

Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a common disease that is associated with increased morbidity and mortality, but treatment options are limited. The efficacy and safety of the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist semaglutide in patients with NASH is not known.. ..In total, 320 patients (of whom 230 had stage F2 or F3 fibrosis) were randomly assigned to receive semaglutide at a dose of 0.1 mg (80 patients), … Continue reading A Placebo-Controlled Trial of Subcutaneous #Semaglutide in Nonalcoholic #Steatohepatitis

#Smoking Cessation, #Weight Change, #Diabetes, and #Hypertension in Korean Adult

This study investigates the association of smoking cessation and postcessation weight gain with the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus and hypertension. Methods A total of 96,524 individuals without diabetes mellitus and hypertension aged ≥20 years between 2006 and 2008 were included, with follow-up until December 31, 2015. Smoking status and weight changes were monitored for 2 years. Hazard ratios and 95% CIs were calculated … Continue reading #Smoking Cessation, #Weight Change, #Diabetes, and #Hypertension in Korean Adult

Associations between #Helicobacter pylori with nonalcoholic fatty #liver disease and other metabolic conditions in Guatemala

Previous studies have suggested an association between Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The aim of the current study was to examine the association in Guatemala, a region with elevated prevalences of both H pylori and NAFLD. Associations between H pylori and other metabolic conditions were also examined, as were associations between H hepaticus and H bilis and the metabolic conditions. … Continue reading Associations between #Helicobacter pylori with nonalcoholic fatty #liver disease and other metabolic conditions in Guatemala

Elevated #LDL cholesterol and increased risk of myocardial #infarction and #atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease in individuals aged 70–100 years: a contemporary primary prevention cohort

Findings of historical studies suggest that elevated LDL cholesterol is not associated with increased risk of myocardial infarction and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease in patients older than 70 years. We aimed to test this hypothesis in a contemporary population of individuals aged 70–100 years.. ..Between Nov 25, 2003, and Feb 17, 2015, 91 131 individuals were enrolled in CGPS. During mean 7·7 (SD 3·2) years of follow-up … Continue reading Elevated #LDL cholesterol and increased risk of myocardial #infarction and #atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease in individuals aged 70–100 years: a contemporary primary prevention cohort

N,N-dimethyltryptamine compound found in the hallucinogenic #tea ayahuasca, regulates adult neurogenesis in vitro and in vivo

N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT) is a component of the ayahuasca brew traditionally used for ritual and therapeutic purposes across several South American countries. Here, we have examined, in vitro and vivo, the potential neurogenic effect of DMT. Our results demonstrate that DMT administration activates the main adult neurogenic niche, the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus, promoting newly generated neurons in the granular zone. … Continue reading N,N-dimethyltryptamine compound found in the hallucinogenic #tea ayahuasca, regulates adult neurogenesis in vitro and in vivo

#Dietary Inflammatory Potential and Risk of #Cardiovascular Disease Among Men and Women in the U.S.

Inflammation plays an important role in cardiovascular disease (CVD) development. Diet modulates inflammation; however, it remains unknown whether dietary patterns with higher inflammatory potential are associated with long-term CVD risk We prospectively followed 74,578 women from the Nurses’ Health Study (NHS) (1984–2016), 91,656 women from the NHSII (1991–2015), and 43,911 men from the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (1986–2016) who were free of CVD and cancer … Continue reading #Dietary Inflammatory Potential and Risk of #Cardiovascular Disease Among Men and Women in the U.S.