..Visceral obesity is a key risk factor for type 2 diabetes (T2D). Whereas gut dysbiosis appears to be instrumental for this relationship, whether gut-associated signatures translocate to extra-intestinal tissues and how this affects host metabolism remain elusive
..We identified tissue-specific signatures with higher bacterial load in the liver and omental adipose tissue. Gut commensals, but also environmental bacteria, showed tissue- and T2D-specific compartmentalisation. T2D signatures were most evident in mesenteric adipose tissue, in which individuals with diabetes displayed reduced bacterial diversity concomitant with fewer Gram-positive bacteria, such as Faecalibacterium, as opposed to enhanced levels of typically opportunistic Gram-negative Enterobacteriaceae.
Plasma samples of individuals with diabetes were similarly enriched in Enterobacteriaceae, including the pathobiont Escherichia–Shigella. Our work provides evidence for the presence of selective plasma and tissue microbial signatures in individuals with severe obesity and identifies new potential microbial targets and biomarkers of T2D.