Exposure to particulate matter (PM) <2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5) has been linked to detrimental health effects. This study aimed to describe the relationship between long-term PM2.5 exposure and kidney disease, including eGFR, level of albuminuria, and incident CKD..
urinary albumin-creatinine ratio (UACR)
..There was no significant PM2.5-eGFR association at baseline. Each 1-μg/m3 higher annual average PM2.5 was associated with higher UACR after adjusting for demographics, socioeconomic status, and clinical covariates (percentage difference, 6.6%; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 2.6% to 10.7%). Each 1-μg/m3 higher annual average PM2.5 was associated with a significantly higher risk of incident CKD (hazard ratio, 1.05; 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.10).
Conclusions Exposure to higher annual average PM2.5 concentrations was associated with a higher level of albuminuria and higher risk for incident CKD in a community-based cohort.