Post-SARS-CoV-2 vaccination venous sinus thrombosis: a literature review of 308 cases

There is accumulating evidence that SARS-CoV-2 vaccinations can be complicated by venous sinus thrombosis (VST). This review aimed at summarising and discussing previous and recent advances regarding the diagnosis, pathogenesis, treatment, and outcome of post-SARS-CoV-2 vaccination VST. At least 308 patients with post-SARS-CoV-2 vaccination VST have been reported as per the end of July 2021. Ages among these 308 patients ranged between 22 and 81 years, 69 were male and 197 were female. Post-SARS-CoV-2 vaccination VST most commonly occurred with the ChAdOx1-S vaccine followed by the BNT126b2 vaccine. In the vast majority of cases, VST occurred after the first dose. Only in six patients did VST occur after the second dose. Latency between vaccination and onset of VST ranged between 0 and 24 days. Regarding treatment, most patients received heparin followed by oral anticoagulants. Seven patients received IVIGs and six patients received steroids because of concomitant vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia.

Complete recovery was reported in 5 patients. Partial recovery was reported in 9 patients. Eight patients were alive or discharged. Sixty-two patients died. The outcome was not specified in the remainder. In conclusion, SARS-CoV-2 vaccinations can be complicated by VST. There is female preponderance and the outcome is frequently poor.