Effect of #Zinc Supplementation vs Placebo on Mortality Risk and #HIV Disease Progression Among HIV-Positive Adults With Heavy #Alcohol Use

.. A total of 254 participants (184 men [72%]; mean [SD] age, 34 [6] years) were enrolled in the trial; 126 were randomized to receive zinc, and 128 were randomized to receive placebo. Participants had high CD4 cell counts (mean [SD], 521 [292] cells/mm3), and 188 (74%) reported heavy drinking in the past week. In the main analyses, zinc supplementation did not affect changes in … Continue reading Effect of #Zinc Supplementation vs Placebo on Mortality Risk and #HIV Disease Progression Among HIV-Positive Adults With Heavy #Alcohol Use

Environmental Factors and Host Microbiomes Shape Host–Pathogen Dynamics

In many cases, interactions among host, pathogen, and environment are insufficient to describe disease dynamics in the wild. The host microbiome plays an important role in host immunity, at the interface between the host and the pathogen, and affects disease outcome. The environment, as well as environmental microbiomes, influence the host microbiome, and also influence simultaneously the host and the pathogen. The three-edged disease triangle … Continue reading Environmental Factors and Host Microbiomes Shape Host–Pathogen Dynamics

Skeletal muscle antagonizes antiviral CD8+ T cell exhaustion

CD8+ T cells become functionally impaired or “exhausted” in chronic infections, accompanied by unwanted body weight reduction and muscle mass loss. Whether muscle regulates T cell exhaustion remains incompletely understood. We report that mouse skeletal muscle increased interleukin (IL)–15 production during LCMV clone 13 chronic infection. Muscle-specific ablation of Il15 enhanced the CD8+ T cell exhaustion phenotype. Muscle-derived IL-15 was required to maintain a population … Continue reading Skeletal muscle antagonizes antiviral CD8+ T cell exhaustion

CDC people at risk of devere COVID-19 illness

..CDC has removed the specific age threshold from the older adult classification. CDC now warns that among adults, risk increases steadily as you age, and it’s not just those over the age of 65 who are at increased risk for severe illness.. ..There was consistent evidence (from multiple small studies or a strong association from a large study) that specific conditions increase a person’s risk … Continue reading CDC people at risk of devere COVID-19 illness

Greater T Regulatory Cells in Females Attenuate DOCA-Salt–Induced Increases in Blood Pressure Versus Males

Hypertension is the most common risk factor for cardiovascular disease, causing over 18 million deaths a year. Although the mechanisms controlling blood pressure (BP) in either sex remain largely unknown, T cells play a critical role in the development of hypertension. Further evidence supports a role for the immune system in contributing to sex differences in hypertension. The goal of the current study was to … Continue reading Greater T Regulatory Cells in Females Attenuate DOCA-Salt–Induced Increases in Blood Pressure Versus Males

Detection of Ciprofloxacin resistant beta lactamase producing Neisseria meningitidis

What is already known about this topic? Most Neisseria meningitidis isolates in the United States have been susceptible to antibiotics recommended for treatment and prophylaxis. What is added by this report? During 2019–2020, 11 meningococcal isolates from U.S. patients had isolates containing a blaROB-1 β-lactamase gene associated with penicillin resistance and mutations associated with ciprofloxacin resistance. An additional 22 cases reported during 2013–2020 contained blaROB-1 … Continue reading Detection of Ciprofloxacin resistant beta lactamase producing Neisseria meningitidis

Association of Azithromycin Use With Cardiovascular Mortality

Azithromycin is one of the most commonly prescribed antibiotics in the US. It has been associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular death in some observational studies.. ..The study included 7 824 681 antibiotic exposures, including 1 736 976 azithromycin exposures (22.2%) and 6 087 705 amoxicillin exposures (77.8%), among 2 929 008 unique individuals (mean [SD] age, 50.7 [12.3] years; 1 810 127 [61.8%] women). Azithromycin was associated with a significantly increased hazard of … Continue reading Association of Azithromycin Use With Cardiovascular Mortality

Prevalence of Asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 Infection

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has spread rapidly throughout the world since the first cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) were observed in December 2019 in Wuhan, China. It has been suspected that infected persons who remain asymptomatic play a significant role in the ongoing pandemic, but their relative number and effect have been uncertain. The authors sought to review and synthesize the … Continue reading Prevalence of Asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 Infection

Identifying airborne transmission as the dominant route for the spread of #COVID-19

Various mitigation measures have been implemented to fight the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, including widely adopted social distancing and mandated face covering. However, assessing the effectiveness of those intervention practices hinges on the understanding of virus transmission, which remains uncertain. Here we show that airborne transmission is highly virulent and represents the dominant route to spread the disease. By analyzing the trend and mitigation … Continue reading Identifying airborne transmission as the dominant route for the spread of #COVID-19

Influence of perceived threat of Covid-19 and HEXACO personality traits on toilet paper stockpiling

Following the fast spread of Covid-19 across Europe and North America in March 2020, many people started stockpiling commodities like toilet paper. Despite the high relevance for public authorities to adequately address stockpiling behavior, empirical studies on the psychological underpinnings of toilet paper stockpiling are still scarce. In this study, we investigated the relation between personality traits, perceived threat of Covid-19, and stockpiling of toilet … Continue reading Influence of perceived threat of Covid-19 and HEXACO personality traits on toilet paper stockpiling

ACE2 Expression is Increased in the Lungs of Patients with Comorbidities Associated with Severe COVID-19

Patients who died from COVID-19 often had comorbidities, such as hypertension, diabetes, and chronic obstructive lung disease. Although angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is crucial for SARS-CoV2 to bind and enter host cells, no study has systematically assessed the ACE2 expression in the lungs of patients with these diseases. Here, we analyzed over 700 lung transcriptome samples of patients with comorbidities associated with severe COVID-19 and … Continue reading ACE2 Expression is Increased in the Lungs of Patients with Comorbidities Associated with Severe COVID-19

SARS-CoV2 vaccines: Slow is fast

..The need to develop a vaccine is urgent, but most estimates conclude that even if trials are successful, an effective vaccine will not be widely available for 12 to 18 months. Much of the required time is related to the pace of proper clinical trials. Studies are usually first needed in experimental animals. However, non-human primates rarely display severe symptoms, and critical disease is also … Continue reading SARS-CoV2 vaccines: Slow is fast