#Zinc acetate lozenges for the treatment of the common #cold: a randomised controlled trial

..There was no difference in the recovery rate between zinc and placebo participants during the 10-day follow-up (rate ratio for zinc vs placebo=0.68, 95% CI 0.42 to 1.08; p=0.10). The recovery rate for the two groups was similar during the 5-day intervention, but for 2 days after the end of zinc/placebo use, the zinc participants recovered significantly slower compared with the placebo participants (p=0.003). In … Continue reading #Zinc acetate lozenges for the treatment of the common #cold: a randomised controlled trial

Relationship of #Nutritional Status, #Inflammation, and Serum #Albumin Levels During Acute Illness: A Prospective Study

Low serum albumin levels resulting from inflammation-induced capillary leakage or disease-related anorexia during acute illness are associated with poor outcomes. We investigated the relationship of nutritional status and inflammation with low serum albumin levels and 30-day mortality in a large cohort.. Among the 2465 patients, 1019 (41%) had low serum albumin levels (<34 g/L), 619 (25.1%) had increased nutritional risk (Nutritional Risk Screening 2002 ≥3), … Continue reading Relationship of #Nutritional Status, #Inflammation, and Serum #Albumin Levels During Acute Illness: A Prospective Study

Homologous recombination within the spike glycoprotein of the newly identified #coronavirus may boost cross‐species transmission from snake to human

The current outbreak of viral pneumonia in the city of Wuhan, China, was caused by a novel coronavirus designated 2019‐nCoV by the World Health Organization, as determined by sequencing the viral RNA genome. Many patients were potentially exposed to wildlife animals at the Huanan seafood wholesale market, where poultry, snake, bats, and other farm animals were also sold.. Results obtained from our analyses suggest that … Continue reading Homologous recombination within the spike glycoprotein of the newly identified #coronavirus may boost cross‐species transmission from snake to human

Prevention of #tuberculosis in macaques after intravenous BCG immunization

Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is the leading cause of death from infection worldwide. The only available vaccine, BCG (Bacillus Calmette–Guérin), is given intradermally and has variable efficacy against pulmonary tuberculosis, the major cause of mortality and disease transmission. Here we show that intravenous administration of BCG profoundly alters the protective outcome of Mtb challenge in non-human primates (Macaca mulatta). Compared with intradermal or aerosol delivery, intravenous … Continue reading Prevention of #tuberculosis in macaques after intravenous BCG immunization

Adrenergic Signaling in #Muscularis Macrophages Limits Infection-Induced Neuronal Loss

..Enteric-associated neurons (EANs) are closely associated with immune cells and continuously monitor and modulate homeostatic intestinal functions, including motility and nutrient sensing. Bidirectional interactions between neuronal and immune cells are altered during disease processes such as neurodegeneration or #irritable bowel syndrome. We investigated the effects of infection-induced inflammation on intrinsic EANs (iEANs) and the role of intestinal muscularis macrophages (MMs) in this context Using murine … Continue reading Adrenergic Signaling in #Muscularis Macrophages Limits Infection-Induced Neuronal Loss

T cell receptor cross-reactivity between gliadin and #bacterial peptides in #celiac disease

The human leukocyte antigen (HLA) locus is strongly associated with T cell-mediated autoimmune disorders. HLA-DQ2.5-mediated celiac disease (CeD) is triggered by the ingestion of gluten, although the relative roles of genetic and environmental risk factors in CeD is unclear. Here we identify microbially derived mimics of gliadin epitopes and a parental bacterial protein that is naturally processed by antigen-presenting cells and activated gliadin reactive HLA-DQ2.5-restricted … Continue reading T cell receptor cross-reactivity between gliadin and #bacterial peptides in #celiac disease

Predictors of #mortality of #influenza virus infections in a Swiss Hospital during four influenza seasons: Role of quick sequential organ failure assessment

..Thirty-day mortality was 6.0% (25 patients). Multivariate analysis revealed that infection due to A virus (P 0.035; OR 7.1; 95% CI 1.1–43.8), malnutrition (P < 0.001; OR 25.0; 95% CI 4.5–138.8), hospital-acquired infection (P 0.003; OR 12.2; 95% CI 2.3–65.1), respiratory insufficiency (PaO2/FiO2 < 300) (P < 0.001; OR 125.8; 95% CI 9.6–1648.7) and pulmonary infiltrate on X-ray (P 0.020; OR 6.0; 95% CI 1.3–27.0) … Continue reading Predictors of #mortality of #influenza virus infections in a Swiss Hospital during four influenza seasons: Role of quick sequential organ failure assessment

Prevalence of Human #Papillomavirus Infection by Number of Vaccine Doses Among US Women

..Compared with unvaccinated women (prevalence of 12.5% [95% CI, 9.7%-15.3%]), infection with HPV type 6, 11, 16, or 18 was significantly less prevalent among women who received 1 dose (2.4% [95% CI, 0%-4.9%]), 2 doses (5.1% [95% CI, 0.8%-9.5%]), or 3 doses (3.1% [95% CI, 0.9%-5.3%]) of HPV vaccine (Table 1). There was no significant difference in prevalence for 1 dose vs 2 doses or … Continue reading Prevalence of Human #Papillomavirus Infection by Number of Vaccine Doses Among US Women

Oseltamivir plus usual care versus usual care for #influenza-like illness in primary care: an open-label, pragmatic, randomised controlled trial

Antivirals are infrequently prescribed in European primary care for influenza-like illness, mostly because of perceived ineffectiveness in real world primary care and because individuals who will especially benefit have not been identified in independent trials.. ..The estimated absolute mean benefit from oseltamivir was 1·02 days (95% [BCrI] 0·74–1·31) overall, and in the prespecified subgroups, ranged from 0·70 (95% BCrI 0·30–1·20) in patients younger than 12 … Continue reading Oseltamivir plus usual care versus usual care for #influenza-like illness in primary care: an open-label, pragmatic, randomised controlled trial