•Sustained weight loss significantly lowers incidence of cardiometabolic outcomes.
•Sustained weight loss significantly delays onset of cardiometabolic outcomes.
•Greater weight loss significantly delays onset of cardiometabolic outcomes.
Obesity increases the risk of developing type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia. We sought to determine the impact of obesity maintenance, weight regain, weight loss maintenance, and magnitudes of weight loss on future risk and time to developing these cardiometabolic conditions. This was a retrospective cohort study of adults receiving primary care at Geisinger Health System between 2001 and 2017. Using electronic health records, patients with ≥3-weight measurements over a 2-year index period were identified and categorized. Obesity maintainers (OM) had obesity (body mass index ≥30 kg/m²) and maintained their weight within ±3% from baseline (reference group). Both weight loss rebounders (WLR) and weight loss maintainers (WLM) had obesity at baseline and lost >5% body weight in year 1; WLR regained ≥20% of weight loss by end of year 2 and WLM maintained ≥80% of weight loss. Incident type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia, and time-to-outcome were determined for each study group and by weight loss category for WLM. Of the 63,567 patients included, 67% were OM, 19% were WLR, and 14% were WLM. The mean duration of follow-up was 6.6 years (SD, 3.9). Time until the development of electronic health record-documented type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia was longest for WLM and shortest for OM..