Current vaccines, which induce a B-cell-mediated antibody response against the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2, have markedly reduced infection rates. However, the emergence of new variants as a result of SARS-CoV-2 evolution requires the development of novel vaccines that are T-cell-based and that target mutant-specific spike proteins along with ORF1ab or nucleocapsid protein. This approach is more accommodative in inducing highly neutralizing antibodies, without the risk of antibody-dependent enhancement, as well as memory CD8+T-cell immunity.

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