Increased D-dimer levels have been shown to correlate with adverse outcomes in various clinical conditions. However, few studies with a large sample size have been performed thus far to evaluate the prognostic value of D-dimer in patients with infective endocarditis (IE).
613 patients with IE were included in the study and categorized into two groups according to the cut-off of D-dimer determined by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis for in-hospital death: > 3.5 mg/L (n = 89) and ≤ 3.5 mg/L (n = 524). Multivariable regression analysis was used to determine the association of D-dimer with in-hospital adverse events and six-month death.
In-hospital death (22.5% vs. 7.3%), embolism (33.7% vs 18.2%), and stroke (29.2% vs 15.8%) were significantly higher in patients with D-dimer > 3.5 mg/L than in those with D-dimer ≤ 3.5 mg/L. Multivariable analysis showed that D-dimer was an independent risk factor for in-hospital adverse events (odds ratio = 1.11, 95% CI 1.03–1.19, P = 0.005). In addition, the Kaplan–Meier curve showed that the cumulative 6-month mortality was significantly higher in patients with D-dimer > 3.5 mg/L than in those with D-dimer ≤ 3.5 mg/L (log-rank test = 39.19, P < 0.0001). Multivariable Cox regression analysis showed that D-dimer remained a significant predictor for six-month death (HR 1.11, 95% CI 1.05–1.18, P < 0.001).
D-dimer is a reliable prognostic biomarker that independently associated with in-hospital adverse events and six-month mortality in patients with IE