… A total of 666,333 men, 70,608 brothers, and 7388 twin brothers born 1939–1959 and examined at the conscript board were followed in Danish nationwide registers (1969–2016). Cox regression models were applied to analyze the association between body height and dementia. Within-brothers and within-twin pair analyses were conducted to explore the role of shared familial factors including partly shared genetics. In total, 10,599 men were diagnosed with dementia.
The association between one z-score difference in body height and dementia (HR: 0.90, 95% CI: 0.89;0.90) was inverse and weakened slightly after adjustment for intelligence test scores and educational level. The associations persisted in within-brother analysis and revealed a stronger, but less precise, point estimate than the cohort analysis of brothers. The twin analysis showed similar, but imprecise estimates.