Anthocyanins as Promising Molecules Affecting Energy Homeostasis, Inflammation, and Gut Microbiota in Type 2 Diabetes with Special Reference to Impact of Acylation

Anthocyanins, the red-orange to blue-violet colorants present in fruits, vegetables, and tubers, have antidiabetic properties expressed via modulating energy metabolism, inflammation, and gut microbiota. Acylation of the glycosyl moieties of anthocyanins alters the physicochemical properties of anthocyanins and improves their stability. Thus, acylated anthocyanins with probiotic-like property and lower bioavailability are likely to have different biological effects from nonacylated anthocyanins on diabetes. This work highlights recent findings on the antidiabetic effects of acylated anthocyanins from the perspectives of energy metabolism, inflammation, and gut microbiota compared to the nonacylated anthocyanins and particularly emphasizes the cellular and molecular mechanisms associated with the beneficial effects of these bioactive molecules, providing a new perspective to explore the different biological effects induced by structurally different anthocyanins.

Acylated anthocyanins may have greater modulating effects on energy metabolism, inflammation, and gut microbiota in type 2 diabetes compared to nonacylated anthocyanins.