Effect of active vitamin D treatment on development of type 2 diabetes: DPVD randomised controlled trial in Japanese population

To assess whether eldecalcitol, an active vitamin D analogue2, can reduce the development of type 2 diabetes among adults with impaired glucose tolerance.

Design Double blinded, multicentre, randomised, placebo controlled trial.

Setting Three hospitals in Japan, between June 2013 and August 2019.

Participants People aged 30 years and older who had impaired glucose tolerance defined by using a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test and glycated haemoglobin level.

Interventions Participants were randomised to receive active vitamin D (eldecalcitol 0.75 μg per day; n=630) or matching placebo (n=626) for three years.

Main outcomes The primary endpoint was incidence of diabetes. Prespecified secondary endpoints were regression to normoglycaemia and incidence of type 2 diabetes after adjustment for confounding factors at baseline. In addition, bone densities and bone and glucose metabolism markers were assessed.

Results Of the 1256 participants, 571 (45.5%) were women and 742 (59.1%) had a family history of type 2 diabetes. The mean age of participants was 61.3 years. The mean serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration at baseline was 20.9 ng/mL (52.2 nmol/L); 548 (43.6%) participants had concentrations below 20 ng/mL (50 nmol/L). During a median follow-up of 2.9 years, 79 (12.5%) of 630 participants in the eldecalcitol group and 89 (14.2%) of 626 in the placebo group developed type 2 diabetes (hazard ratio 0.87, 95% confidence interval 0.67 to 1.17; P=0.39). Regression to normoglycaemia was achieved in 145 (23.0%) of 630 participants in the eldecalcitol group and 126 (20.1%) of 626 in the placebo group (hazard ratio 1.15, 0.93 to 1.41; P=0.21). After adjustment for confounding factors by multivariable fractional polynomial Cox regression analysis, eldecalcitol significantly lowered the development of diabetes (hazard ratio 0.69, 0.51 to 0.95; P=0.020). In addition, eldecalcitol showed its beneficial effect among the participants with the lower level of basal insulin secretion (hazard ratio 0.41, 0.23 to 0.71; P=0.001). During follow-up, bone mineral densities of the lumbar spine and femoral neck and serum osteocalcin concentrations significantly increased with eldecalcitol compared with placebo (all P<0.001). No significant difference in serious adverse events was observed.

Conclusions Although treatment with eldecalcitol did not significantly reduce the incidence of diabetes among people with pre-diabetes, the results suggested the potential for a beneficial effect of eldecalcitol on people with insufficient insulin secretion.