This study aims to investigate whether food intake time across 3 meals is associated with long-term survival among the people with diabetes.
Materials and Methods
This study included 4642 diabetic patients participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2003 to 2014. Food consumed across a day including the forenoon, afternoon, and evening was divided into quantiles based on their distribution. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to analyze the survival relationship between food intakes time and mortality.
In the forenoon, compared to the participants in the lowest quantile of potato and starchy vegetable, participants in the highest quantile had lower mortality risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) [hazard ratio (HR)potato = 0.46, 95% CI 0.24-0.89; HRstarchy-vegetable = 0.32, 95% CI 0.15-0.72]. In the afternoon, participants who consumed whole grain had lower mortality of CVD (HRwhole grain = 0.67, 95% CI 0.48-0.95). In the evening, the highest quantile of dark vegetable and milk intake is related to lower mortality risk of CVD (HRdark vegetable = 0.55, 95% CI 0.35-0.87; HRmilk = 0.56, 95% CI 0.36-0.88) and all-cause mortality (HRmilk = 0.71, 95% CI 0.54-0.92), whereas participants in the highest quantile of intakes of processed meat are more likely to die due to CVD (HRprocessed-meat = 1.74, 95% CI 1.07-2.82). Isocalorically switching 0.1 serving potato or starchy vegetable consumed in the afternoon or evening to the forenoon, 0.1 serving dark vegetable consumed in the afternoon to the evening, and 0.1 serving whole grain consumed in the forenoon to the afternoon reduced the risk of CVD mortality.
Higher intake of potato or starchy vegetable in forenoon, whole grain in the afternoon, and dark vegetable and milk in the evening and lower intake of processed meat in the evening was associated with better long-term survival in people with diabetes.