Increased #Risk of Stroke in Patients With #Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A Nationwide Longitudinal Study

Patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) tend to be comorbid with stroke-related risk factors, including obesity, hypertension, and diabetes. However, the temporal association between OCD and subsequent stroke risk is unclear.

Methods:
Using data collected between 2001 and 2010 by Taiwan’s National Health Insurance Research Database, 28 064 adult patients with OCD (International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification [ICD-9-CM] code: 300.3) and 28 064 age-, sex-, and comorbidity-matched controls were included in this study. Patients who developed ischemic (ICD-9-CM codes: 433, 434, and 435) and hemorrhagic (ICD-9-CM codes: 430, 431, and 432) stroke during follow-up (from enrollment to end of 2011) were identified. Moreover, medications used for treating OCD were assessed.

Results:
Patients with OCD (hazard ratio [HR], 3.02 [95% CI, 1.91–4.77]), especially middle-aged (HR, 2.66 [95% CI, 1.34–5.29]) and elderly adults (HR, 3.46 [95% CI, 1.70–7.05]), had an elevated risk of developing ischemic stroke during the follow-up period compared with non-OCD controls. The cumulative HR of hemorrhagic stroke did not differ (HR, 0.87 [95% CI, 0.42–1.80]) between the OCD and non-OCD groups. In patients with OCD, both short- (HR, 1.69 [95% CI, 0.74–3.88]; HR, 0.31 [95% CI, 0.05–1.95]) and long-term use (HR, 1.37 [95% CI, 0.60–3.16]; HR, 0.90 [95% CI, 0.22–3.76]) of OCD medications were not correlated with ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke compared with nonuse.

Conclusions:
Clinicians should closely monitor cerebrovascular disease and related risks in patients with OCD. The pathomechanism of OCD with an increased risk of ischemic stroke warrants further investigation.

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