Prior observational studies have suggested that fluoroquinolone use may be associated with more than 2-fold increased risk of aortic aneurysm or aortic dissection (AA/AD). These studies, however, did not fully consider the role of coexisting infections and the risk of fluoroquinolones relative to other antibiotics..
.. A total of 28 948 cases and 289 480 matched controls were included (71.37% male; mean [SD] age, 67.41 [15.03] years). Among these, the adjusted OR of AA/AD for any indicated infections was 1.73 (95% CI, 1.66-1.81). Septicemia (OR, 3.16; 95% CI, 2.63-3.78) and intra-abdominal infection (OR, 2.99; 95% CI, 2.45-3.65) had the highest increased risk. Fluoroquinolones were not associated with an increased AA/AD risk when compared with combined amoxicillin-clavulanate or combined ampicillin-sulbactam (OR, 1.01; 95% CI, 0.82-1.24) or with extended-spectrum cephalosporins (OR, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.70-1.11) among patients with indicated infections. The null findings for fluoroquinolone use remained robust in different subgroup and sensitivity analyses.
Conclusions and Relevance These results highlight the importance of accounting for coexisting infections while examining the safety of antibiotics using real-world data; the findings suggest that concerns about AA/AD risk should not deter fluoroquinolone use for patients with indicated infections