..Thirty-nine adults (age: 26 ± 1 y; BMI: 24.4 ± 0.5 kg/m2) randomly completed the following afternoon snack patterns for 6 d/pattern: hummus and pretzels [HUMMUS; 240 kcal; 6 g protein, 31 g carbohydrate (2 g sugar), 11 g fat]; granola bars [BARS; 240 kcal; 4 g protein, 38 g carbohydrate (16 g sugar), 9 g fat]; or no snacking (NO SNACK). On day 7 of each pattern, a standardized breakfast and lunch were provided. The respective snack was provided to participants 3 h after lunch, and appetite, satiety, and mood questionnaires were completed throughout the afternoon. At 3 h postsnack, a standardized dinner was consumed, and an evening snack cooler was provided to be consumed, ad libitum at home, throughout the evening. Lastly, 24 h continuous glucose monitoring was performed.
HUMMUS reduced subsequent snacking on desserts by ∼20% compared with NO SNACK (P = 0.001) and BARS (P < 0.001). HUMMUS led to greater dietary compensation compared with BARS (122 ± 31% compared with 72 ± 32%, respectively; P < 0.05). HUMMUS reduced indices of appetite (i.e., hunger, desire to eat, and prospective food consumption) by ∼70% compared with NO SNACK (all P < 0.05), whereas BARS did not. Additionally, satiety was ∼30% greater following HUMMUS and BARS compared with NO SNACK (both P < 0.005) with no differences between snacks. Lastly, HUMMUS reduced afternoon blood glucose concentrations by ∼5% compared with BARS (P < 0.05).
Acute consumption of a low-sugar, afternoon hummus snack improved diet quality and selected indices of appetite, satiety, and glycemic control in healthy adults. Long-term trials assessing the effects of hummus snacking on health outcomes are warranted.