..The risk of myocardial infarction and ischemic stroke increased with higher hemoglobin concentration in both men and women. The HRs for myocardial infarction and ischemic stroke in men with hemoglobin concentration ≥ 17.5 g/dL were 3.52 (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.85–4.36) and 2.36 (95% CI, 1.63–3.43), respectively, compared to the reference group. The corresponding HRs for women with hemoglobin concentration ≥ 16.0 g/dL were 3.22 (2.12–4.89) and 2.35 (1.37–4.02) for myocardial infarction and ischemic stroke, respectively. The risk of venous thrombosis was highest in men with subnormal hemoglobin concentration (<13.0 g/dL), HR 1.69 (95% CI, 1.40–2.04). In the person-stratified model, the association between elevated hemoglobin concentration and risk of myocardial infarction was attenuated but remained significant.
In this large cohort of Scandinavian blood donors, elevated hemoglobin concentration was associated with an increased risk of vascular events, primarily arterial events. Even though associations were weakened when each person served as their own control, a high hemoglobin concentration may serve as a cardiovascular risk marker