Effects of One Year of Vitamin #D and Marine #Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation on Biomarkers of Systemic Inflammation in Older US Adults

..(VITAL) tested vitamin D (2000 IU/day) and/or n-3 FA (1 g/day) supplementation in a 2 × 2 factorial design among women ≥55 and men ≥50 years of age.

Baseline characteristics were well balanced. In the active arms, 25-OH vitamin D rose 39% and n-3 FA rose 55% vs minimal change in placebo arms. Neither supplement reduced biomarkers at 1 year. Vitamin D resulted in 8.2% higher IL-6 (95% CI, 1.5%–15.3%; adjusted P = 0.02), but TNFR2 and hsCRP did not. Among 784 receiving vitamin D, hsCRP increased 35.7% (7.8%–70.9%) in those with low (<20 ng/mL) but not with higher baseline serum 25(OH) vitamin D [0.45% (−8.9% to 10.8%); P interaction = 0.02]. Among 777 randomized to n-3 FA, hsCRP declined [−10.5% (−20.4% to 0.8%)] in those with baseline low (<1.5 servings/week), but not with higher fish intake [6.4% (95% CI, −7.11% to 21.8%); P interaction = 0.06].

Conclusions: In this large sample from a population-based randomized controlled trial, neither vitamin D nor n-3 FA supplementation over 1 year decreased these biomarkers of inflammation.