Population Impact Attributable to Modifiable Risk Factors for Hyperuricemia

BMI, alcohol intake, adherence to a DASH‐style diet, and diuretic use were all associated with serum urate levels and the presence of hyperuricemia in a dose‐response manner. The corresponding PARs of hyperuricemia cases for overweight/obesity (prevalence, 60%), non‐adherence to a DASH‐style diet (prevalence, 82%), alcohol use (prevalence, 48%), and diuretic use (prevalence, 8%) were 44% (95% CI, 41 to 48%), 9% (3% to 16%), 8% (5% to 11%), and 12% (11% to 14%), respectively, whereas the corresponding variances explained were 8.9%, 0.1%, 0.5%, and 5.0%. Our simulation study showed the variance nearing zero with exposure prevalence’s nearing 100%.

In these nationally representative US adults, four modifiable risk factors (BMI, the DASH diet, alcohol use, and diuretic use) could individually account for a notable proportion of hyperuricemia cases. However, the corresponding serum urate variance explained by these risk factors was very small and paradoxically masked their high prevalences, providing real‐life empirical evidence for its limitations in assessing common risk factors.