Effectiveness of #polymyxin B-immobilized hemoperfusion against #sepsis and septic #shock: A systematic review and meta-analysis

To evaluate the efficacy and safety of Polymyxin B-immobilized hemoperfusion (PMX-HP) against sepsis or septic shock.

We searched databases (PubMed, EMBASE and Cochrane Library) to identify eligible randomized controlled trials (RCTs). The primary outcomes we included in this review were mortality at the longest follow-up available and serious adverse events associated with treatments. We used the Cochrane risk of bias assessment tool to evaluate risk of bias. Trial Sequential Analysis (TSA) was performed to assess the conclusion reached in our research.

Thirteen studies including 1163 patients were identified. Use of PMX-HP could reduce overall mortality [relative risk (RR) 0.68, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.51–0.91, P = 0.01]. An interesting finding was that the mortality of patients in Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE II) scores <25 group (RR 0.64, 95% CI 0.52–0.78, P < 0.0001) and sepsis group (RR 0.48, 95% CI 0.32–0.72, P = 0.0003) significantly decreased after PMX-HP treatment. The result also showed that PMX-HP could reduce endotoxin levels [Standardized mean difference (SMD) -1.53, 95% CI -2.92– -0.13, P = 0.03] and improve mean arterial pressure (SMD 1.07, 95% CI 0.14–2.01, P = 0.02). Serious adverse events between the PMX-HP group and standard therapy group were not significantly different (RR 2.16, 95% CI 0.97–4.80, I2 = 0%, P = 0.06). However, TSA did not provide conclusive evidence and more high quality RCTs were required.

Using PMX-HP to treat patients with less severe sepsis can reduce overall mortality and is safe. Treatment efficacy may benefit from the reduction of endotoxin level and the improvement of hemodynamics. More high quality RCTs are required to further evaluate the clinical role of PMX-HP against severe sepsis or septic shock.