The coincidence of coronary artery disease (CAD) and carotid artery stenosis (CAS) was observed. However, the association between pre-existing CAD and ischemic stroke (IS) outcome in patients with high-grade CAS remains unclear. We aimed to investigate the association between pre-existing CAD and outcomes of acute IS patients with high-grade CAS.
Methods: From January 1, 2007, to April 30, 2012, we enrolled 372 acute IS patients with high-grade CAS and prospectively observed them for 5 years. Demographic features, vascular risk factors, comorbidities, and outcomes were compared between patients with and without pre-existing CAD.
Results: Among 372 individuals, 75 (20.2%) patients had pre-existing CAD and 297 (79.8%) patients did not have pre-existing CAD. The prevalence rates of hypertension, congestive heart failure, chronic kidney disease, and gout in patients with pre-existing CAD were significantly higher than in those without pre-existing CAD (p = 0.017, p < 0.001, p = 0.002, and p < 0.001, respectively). The multivariate Cox proportional hazards model revealed that pre-existing CAD was a significant risk factor for a 5-year all-cause mortality in acute IS patients with high-grade CAS (hazard ratio = 2.26; 95% confidence interval = 1.35–3.79; p = 0.002).
Conclusion: Pre-existing CAD was associated with an increased risk of 5-year mortality in acute IS patients with high-grade CAS. Intensive treatment for the pre-existing CAD may reduce long-term mortality in acute IS patients with high-grade CAS.