Predictors of Mortality in Patients with Chronic Heart #Failure: Is #Hyponatremia a Useful Clinical Biomarker?

Chronic heart failure (CHF) is a global health burden. Despite advances in treatment, there remain well-recognised morbidity and mortality. Risk stratification requires the identification and validation of biomarkers, old and new. Hyponatremia has re-emerged as a prognostic marker in CHF patients..

..Mean age of patients was 60.61 ± 12.63 (SD) years; 65.1% were males, and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) was present in 71%. Baseline serum sodium was 138.00 (136, 140) (median and interquartile range). Hyponatremia (< 135 meq/L) was present in 14.1%. After follow-up, 46 deaths had occurred. Multivariate Cox-proportional hazard model showed that type 2 DM, New York Heart Association (NYHA) class (III–IV vs I–II), age, and left ventricular mass index (LVMI) were significant and independent predictors of ACM, with HR 3.03 (95% CI; 1.13, 8.16) (P=0.028), HR 2.31 (95% CI; 1.11, 4.82) (P=0.026), HR 1.06 (95% CI; 1.03, 1.09) (P< 0.001), and HR 1.01 (95% CI; 1.00, 1.02) (P=0.039), respectively. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was not a significant predictor.

Kaplan–Meier survival analysis was used for the analysis of NYHA class and hyponatremia interactions and showed that hyponatremia had an association with poorer survival in patients with NYHA class III–IV rather than I–II (Log-rank test, P= 0.0009).

Conclusion: Hyponatremia was a feature in CHF patients, and ACM was predicted by type 2 DM, NYHA class, age, and LVMI. Hyponatremia impact on survival was in patients with more advanced disease.