Glycemic Status, Insulin Resistance, and the Risk of Nephrolithiasis: A Cohort Study

..During a median follow-up of 4.2 years, 6,904 participants developed nephrolithiasis. Associations between levels of glycemic status and incident nephrolithiasis were examined separately in men and women ( P for interaction = 0.003).

Among men, multivariable-adjusted HRs for incident nephrolithiasis comparing glucose levels of 90-99, 100-125, and 126-<90 mg/dL were 1.10 (95% CI, 1.01-1.19), 1.11 (95% CI, 1.02-1.21), and 1.27 (95% CI, 1.10-1.46), respectively, while HRs for incident nephrolithiasis comparing glycated hemoglobin levels of 5.7%-5.9%, 6.0%-6.4%, and 6.5%-<5.7% were 1.03 (95% CI, 0.96-1.10), 1.18 (95% CI, 1.07-1.31), and 1.20 (95% CI, 1.06-1.37), respectively. The HR for incident nephrolithiasis comparing the highest HOMA-IR quintile to the lowest quintile was 1.18 (95% CI, 1.06-1.31). Among women, no apparent association was found between glycemic status and nephrolithiasis risk.

Glucose tolerance testing and computed tomography assessment for nephrolithiasis were not available.

Glycemic status, even within the nondiabetic range, and HOMA-IR were positively associated with increased risk for nephrolithiasis, associations that were only observed among men. Insulin resistance and hyperglycemia may contribute to the development of nephrolithiasis, particularly among men.