Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAV) is a systemic small vessel vasculitis characterized by circulating ANCAs targeting proteinase 3 (PR3) or myeloperoxidase (MPO) and associated with excess morbidity and mortality. Myeloperoxidase-ANCA–positive AAV and PR3-ANCA–positive AAV are increasingly recognized to have differences in genetic risk, pathogenesis, and response to treatment. Risk factors for AAV, including cigarette smoking, are poorly understood..
..Overall, 473 cases were matched with 1419 controls (mean [SD] age, 59  years; 281 women [59%], 396 white [84%]). Patients with AAV were more likely to be former (OR, 1.6; 95% CI, 1.3-2.0) or current smokers (OR, 2.7; 95% CI, 1.8-4.1); there was a dose-response relationship according to pack-years of exposure (P < .001). These associations were especially strong among participants with MPO-ANCA–positive disease (former smokers: OR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.3-2.3; current smokers: OR, 3.5; 95% CI, 2.1-6.1) but not in participants with PR3-ANCA–positive AAV (former smokers: OR, 1.3; 95% CI, 0.9-2.0; current smokers: OR, 1.7; 95% CI, 0.8-3.5). After stratifying by selected demographics and disease manifestations, these associations remained strong.
Conclusions and Relevance Cigarette smoking was associated with AAV, especially MPO-ANCA–positive AAV. Further studies are needed to investigate a potential pathogenic mechanism