Organophosphate esters (OPEs) are a class of semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) used as flame retardants, plasticizers, and anti-foaming agents. Due to stringent flammability standards in vehicles and the ability of OPEs to migrate out of end-use products, elevated concentrations of OPEs have been found in car dust samples around the world..
..Moreover, the concentration of tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCIPP) was significantly correlated with the concentration of several Firemaster 500 components and tris(2-chloroisopropyl) phosphate (TCIPP). Finally, out of all OPEs measured, TDCIPP was significantly and positively correlated with total commute score, indicating that longer commutes are associated with increased human exposure to TDCIPP. Overall, our findings raise concerns about the potential for chronic TDCIPP exposure within vehicles and other forms of transportation, particularly within densely populated and traffic-congested areas such as Southern California.