..migraine onset on the day immediately following the sleep period (day 0) and the following day (day 1).
..Sleep duration ≤6.5 hours and poor sleep quality were not associated with migraine on day 0 or day 1. Diary-reported low efficiency was associated with 39% higher odds of headache on day 1 (odds ratio [OR] 1.39, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.06–1.81). Actigraphic-assessed high fragmentation was associated with lower odds of migraine on day 0 (wake after sleep onset >53 minutes, OR 0.64, 95% CI 0.48–0.86; efficiency ≤88%, OR 0.74, 95% CI 0.56–0.99).
Conclusion Short sleep duration and low sleep quality were not temporally associated with migraine. Sleep fragmentation, defined by low sleep efficiency, was associated with higher odds of migraine on day 1. Further research is needed to understand the clinical and neurobiologic implications of sleep fragmentation and risk of migraine.