After 3 years of follow-up, recurrent thrombosis occurred in 11 patients (11.6%) in the rivaroxaban group and 6 (6.3%) in the VKA group (RR in the rivaroxaban group, 1.83 [95% CI, 0.71 to 4.76]). Stroke occurred more commonly in patients receiving rivaroxaban (9 events) than in those receiving VKAs (0 events) (corrected RR, 19.00 [CI, 1.12 to 321.9]). Major bleeding occurred in 6 patients (6.3%) in the rivaroxaban group and 7 (7.4%) in the VKA group (RR, 0.86 [CI, 0.30 to 2.46]). Post hoc analysis suggested an increased risk for recurrent thrombosis in rivaroxaban-treated patients with previous arterial thrombosis, livedo racemosa, or APS-related cardiac valvular disease.
Rivaroxaban did not show noninferiority to dose-adjusted VKAs for thrombotic APS and, in fact, showed a non–statistically significant near doubling of the risk for recurrent thrombosis.