Single inhaler extrafine triple therapy in uncontrolled asthma (TRIMARAN and TRIGGER): two double-blind, parallel-group, randomised, controlled phase 3 trials

..extrafine combination of beclometasone dipropionate (BDP; inhaled corticosteroid), formoterol fumarate (FF; long-acting β 2 agonist), and glycopyrronium (G; long-acting muscarinic antagonist) with the combination of BDP with FF

..Compared with the BDP/FF group, week 26 predose FEV 1 improved in the BDP/FF/G group by 57 mL (95% CI 15–99; p=0·0080) in TRIMARAN and by 73 mL (26–120; p=0·0025) in TRIGGER, with reductions in the rate of moderate and severe exacerbations of 15% (rate ratio 0·85, 95% CI 0·73–0·99; p=0·033) in TRIMARAN and 12% (0·88, 0·75–1·03; p=0·11) in TRIGGER. Four patients had treatment-related serious adverse events, one in TRIMARAN in the BDP/FF/G group and three in TRIGGER—one in the BDP/FF/G and two in the BDP/FF group. Three patients in the BDP/FF/G group in TRIMARAN and two patients in TRIGGER—one in the BDP/FF/G group and one in the BDP/FF group—had adverse events leading to death. None of the deaths were considered as related to treatment.

In uncontrolled asthma, addition of a long-acting muscarinic antagonist to inhaled corticosteroid plus long-acting β 2-agonist therapy improves lung function and reduces exacerbations