The oral #microbiome in early #rheumatoid arthritis patients and individuals at risk differs from healthy controls

It has been suggested that rheumatoid arthritis (RA) may originate at the oral mucosa. Our aim was to assess the oral microbiome and the periodontal condition in patients with early rheumatoid arthritis (ERA) and individuals at risk of RA. MethodsThree groups were recruited (50 participants each): (1) ERA patients (2010 ACR/EULAR criteria), (2) at‐risk individuals (arthralgia and autoantibodies), and (3) healthy controls. A periodontal examination … Continue reading The oral #microbiome in early #rheumatoid arthritis patients and individuals at risk differs from healthy controls

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Delayed #antibiotic prescribing for #respiratory tract infections: individual patient data meta-analysis

To assess the overall effect of delayed antibiotic prescribing on average symptom severity for patients with respiratory tract infections in the community, and to identify any factors modifying this effect. Design Systematic review and individual patient data meta-analysis. Data sources Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Ovid Medline, Ovid Embase, EBSCO CINAHL Plus, and Web of Science. Eligibility criteria for study selection Randomised controlled trials … Continue reading Delayed #antibiotic prescribing for #respiratory tract infections: individual patient data meta-analysis

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Effectiveness and Harms of High-Flow Nasal #Oxygen for Acute #Respiratory Failure: An Evidence Report for a Clinical Guideline From the American College of Physicians

Use of high-flow nasal oxygen (HFNO) for treatment of adults with acute respiratory failure (ARF) has increased. Purpose:To assess HFNO versus noninvasive ventilation (NIV) or conventional oxygen therapy (COT) for ARF in hospitalized adults. Data Sources:English-language searches of MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, and Cochrane Library from January 2000 to July 2020; systematic review reference lists. Study Selection:29 randomized controlled trials evaluated HFNO versus NIV (k = 11) … Continue reading Effectiveness and Harms of High-Flow Nasal #Oxygen for Acute #Respiratory Failure: An Evidence Report for a Clinical Guideline From the American College of Physicians

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Vitamin #D supplementation to prevent acute respiratory #infections: a systematic review and meta-analysis of aggregate data from randomised controlled trials

A 2017 meta-analysis of data from 25 randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of vitamin D supplementation for the prevention of acute respiratory infections (ARIs) revealed a protective effect of this intervention. We aimed to examine the link between vitamin D supplementation and prevention of ARIs in an updated meta-analysis. Methods For this systematic review and meta-analysis, we searched MEDLINE, Embase, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled … Continue reading Vitamin #D supplementation to prevent acute respiratory #infections: a systematic review and meta-analysis of aggregate data from randomised controlled trials

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#COVID-19 Pandemic: A Wake-Up Call for Clean #Air

..Since its identification in Wuhan, China, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has infected more than 104 million and killed over 2.2 million people worldwide (1). Recent studies of air pollution and COVID-19 cases and mortality in diverse international settings add convincingly to a large body of evidence showing that exposure to air pollution exacerbates viral respiratory infections and consequently widens health disparities. Meanwhile, the global lockdown … Continue reading #COVID-19 Pandemic: A Wake-Up Call for Clean #Air

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Obstructive Sleep #Apnea as a Risk Factor for Intracerebral #Hemorrhage

To determine whether obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) risk, we assessed premorbid OSA exposure of patients with nontraumatic ICH and matched controls. Methods: Ethnic/Racial Variations of Intracerebral Hemorrhage is a multicenter, case-control study evaluating risk factors for ICH that recruited 3000 cases with ICH and 3000 controls. OSA status was ascertained using the Berlin Questionnaire as a surrogate for premorbid … Continue reading Obstructive Sleep #Apnea as a Risk Factor for Intracerebral #Hemorrhage

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#Sotatercept for the Treatment of Pulmonary Arterial #Hypertension

Pulmonary arterial hypertension is characterized by pulmonary vascular remodeling, cellular proliferation, and poor long-term outcomes. Dysfunctional bone morphogenetic protein pathway signaling is associated with both hereditary and idiopathic subtypes. Sotatercept, a novel fusion protein, binds activins and growth differentiation factors in the attempt to restore balance between growth-promoting and growth-inhibiting signaling pathways. METHODS In this 24-week multicenter trial, we randomly assigned 106 adults who were … Continue reading #Sotatercept for the Treatment of Pulmonary Arterial #Hypertension

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Appropriate Use of Short-Course #Antibiotics in Common #Infections: Best Practice Advice From the American College of Physicians

Antimicrobial overuse is a major health care issue that contributes to antibiotic resistance. Such overuse includes unnecessarily long durations of antibiotic therapy in patients with common bacterial infections, such as acute bronchitis with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbation, community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), urinary tract infections (UTIs), and cellulitis. This article describes best practices for prescribing appropriate and short-duration antibiotic therapy for patients presenting with these … Continue reading Appropriate Use of Short-Course #Antibiotics in Common #Infections: Best Practice Advice From the American College of Physicians

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Empiric #antibiotics for community-acquired #pneumonia in adult patients: a systematic review and a network meta-analysis

The main aim of this network meta-analysis is to identify the empiric antibiotic (Em-ATB) with the highest probability of being the best (HPBB) in terms of (1) cure rate and (2) mortality rate in hospitalised patients with community acquired pneumonia (CAP) . Method Inclusion criteria: (1) adult patients (>16 years old) diagnosed with CAP that required hospitalisation; (2) randomised to at least two different Em-ATBs, (3) … Continue reading Empiric #antibiotics for community-acquired #pneumonia in adult patients: a systematic review and a network meta-analysis

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Broadened Eligibility for #Lung #Cancer Screening Challenges and Uncertainty for Implementation and Equity

In 2013, the US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommended annual lung cancer screening with low-dose computed tomography (CT) in US adults aged 55 to 80 years who currently smoke or formerly smoked with a 30 pack-year history, and for those who formerly smoked, quitting within the past 15 years (grade “B” recommendation).1 In this issue of JAMA, the USPSTF updates this recommendation, proposing 2 … Continue reading Broadened Eligibility for #Lung #Cancer Screening Challenges and Uncertainty for Implementation and Equity

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Short-Course #Antimicrobial Therapy for Pediatric Community-Acquired #Pneumonia The SAFER Randomized Clinical Trial

Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a common occurrence in childhood; consequently, evidence-based recommendations for its treatment are required. Objective To determine whether 5 days of high-dose amoxicillin for CAP was associated with noninferior rates of clinical cure compared with 10 days of high-dose amoxicillin. Design, Setting, and Participants The SAFER (Short-Course Antimicrobial Therapy for Pediatric Respiratory Infections) study was a 2-center, parallel-group, noninferiority randomized clinical trial … Continue reading Short-Course #Antimicrobial Therapy for Pediatric Community-Acquired #Pneumonia The SAFER Randomized Clinical Trial

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Calculated indices of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in exhalation for #lung #cancer screening and early detection

Breath analysis is a promising noninvasive technique that offers a wide range of opportunities to facilitate early diagnosis of lung cancer (LC). Method Exhaled breath samples of 352 subjects including 160 with lung cancer (LC), 70 with benign pulmonary nodule (BPN) and 122 healthy controls (HC) were analyzed through thermal desorption coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (TD-GC–MS) to obtain the metabolic information from volatile organic … Continue reading Calculated indices of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in exhalation for #lung #cancer screening and early detection

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