Clinical efficacy and safety of linezolid in intensive care unit patients

To characterize the population of critically ill patients and infections treated with linezolid in the intensive care unit (ICU), and to evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of linezolid therapy.

This multi-center, observational, real-world study was conducted across 52 hospitals between June 9, 2018, and December 28, 2019. Patients who met the following inclusion criteria were included: (1) admitted to the ICU, (2) of any age group, and (3) having a clinical or laboratory diagnosis of a Gram-positive bacterial infection. Clinical efficacy was categorized as success (cured or improved), failed, or non-evaluable. Adverse events and serious adverse events were recorded during treatment.

A total of 366 ICU patients who met the inclusion criteria were evaluated. Linezolid was used as second- and first-line treatment in 232 (63.4%) and 134 (36.6%) patients, respectively. The most common isolated strain was Staphylococcus aureus (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: n=37/119, 31.1%; methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus: n=15/119, 12.6%); this was followed by Enterococci (vancomycin-resistant Enterococci: n=8/119, 6.7%; vancomycin-susceptible Enterococci: n=11/119, 9.2%) and Streptococcus pneumoniae (multidrug-resistant: n=4/119, 3.4%; non-multidrug resistant: n=2/119, 1.7%). The main infection sites where pathogens were detected included the lung (n=216/366, 59.6%), skin and soft tissue (n=104/366, 28.4%), and blood (n=50/366, 13.7%). Clinical success was achieved in 301 (82.2%) patients; 34 (9.3%) were cured and 267 (73.0%) improved; treatment failure and non-evaluable outcomes were observed in 29 (7.9%) in 36 (9.8%) patients, respectively. Linezolid-related adverse events were reported in 8 (2.2%) patients. No treatment-related serious adverse events were reported.

Based on real-world results, linezolid was found to be effective and safe in the treatment of Gram-positive bacterial infections in critically ill patients.