..Preprints available here are not Lancet publications or necessarily under review with a Lancet journal. These preprints are early stage research papers that have not been peer-reviewed. The findings should not be used for clinical or public health decision making and should not be presented to a lay audience without highlighting that they are preliminary and have not been peer-reviewed..
Background: COVID-19 vaccine supply shortages are causing concerns about compromised immunity in some countries as the interval between first and second dose extends. Conversely, countries with no supply constraints are considering administering a third dose. We assessed the persistence of immunogenicity after a single dose, the immunity after an extended interval between the first and second dose of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19(AZD1222), and the response to a third dose as a late booster.
Methods: Volunteers aged 18-55 years who were enrolled in a Phase 1/2 or Phase 2/3 clinical trial of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 and had received either a single dose or two doses of 5×10 10 viral particles were invited back for vaccination. Reactogenicity and immunogenicity of a delayed second dose or a third dose are reported here.
Findings: Antibody titres after a single dose and measured on d362 remain higher than the titres measured on d0 (62.61 EU; 95% CI 47.43-82.64 vs 1 EU 95% CI 1-16). 30 participants received a late second dose of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (median 44 weeks after first dose), antibody titres were higher in those with a longer interval between first and second dose (median EU for 8-12, 15-25, and 44-46 weeks were 923 [IQR 525-1764], 1860 [IQR 917-4934] and 3738 [IQR 1824-6625] respectively). 90 participants received a third dose and antibody titres were significantly higher following a third dose (FRNT50 612 [IQR 351-920]) when compared with the response 28 days after a second dose (FRNT 50 319 [IQR 176-591]. T-cell responses were also boosted after a third dose. Reactogenicity after a late second dose or a third dose was lower than reactogenicity after a first dose.
Interpretation: A longer delay before the second dose of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 leads to an increased antibody titre after the second dose. A third dose of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 induces antibodies to a level that correlate with high efficacy after second dose and boosts T-cell responses.