Racial and Ethnic Differences in Presentation and Outcomes for Patients Hospitalized with #COVID-19: Findings from the American Heart Association’s COVID-19 Cardiovascular Disease Registry

The COVID-19 pandemic has exposed longstanding racial/ethnic inequities in health risks and outcomes in the U.S.. We sought to identify racial/ethnic differences in presentation and outcomes for patients hospitalized with COVID-19..

..Among 7,868 patients hospitalized with COVID-19, 33.0% were Hispanic, 25.5% were non-Hispanic Black, 6.3% were Asian, and 35.2% were non-Hispanic White. Hispanic and Black patients were younger than non-Hispanic White and Asian patients and were more likely to be uninsured. Black patients had the highest prevalence of obesity, hypertension, and diabetes.

Black patients also had the highest rates of mechanical ventilation (23.2%) and renal replacement therapy (6.6%) but the lowest rates of remdesivir use (6.1%). Overall mortality was 18.4% with 53% of all deaths occurring in Black and Hispanic patients. The adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for mortality were 0.93 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.76-1.14) for Black patients, 0.90 (95% CI 0.73-1.11) for Hispanic patients, and 1.31 (95% CI 0.96-1.80) for Asian patients compared with non-Hispanic White patients. The median OR across hospitals was 1.99 (95% CI 1.74-2.48). Results were similar for MACE. Asian patients had the highest COVID-19 cardiorespiratory severity at presentation (adjusted OR 1.48, 95% CI 1.16-1.90).

Conclusions: Although in-hospital mortality and MACE did not differ by race/ethnicity after adjustment, Black and Hispanic patients bore a greater burden of mortality and morbidity due to their disproportionate representation among COVID-19 hospitalizations