Associations between affective problems (anxiety and depression) and premature mortality have been demonstrated among psychiatric, medical, and community-based samples and across many causes of death..
..Of 3001 study members (1509 [50.3%] female, 1492 [49.7%] male), 235 individuals (7.8%) died over a 15-year follow-up. After adjustment for sex, those who experienced case-level affective symptoms 1, 2, and 3 to 4 times had 76%, 87%, and 134% higher rates of premature mortality, respectively, compared with those who never experienced case-level symptoms. Case-level symptoms in adolescence only (ages 13-15 years) were associated with a 94% increased rate of mortality, which was unexplained after full adjustment for covariates (hazard ratio, 1.73; 95% CI, 1.10-2.72). Associations between participants with case-level symptoms multiple (2-4) times and mortality were predominately explained by adult health indicators and behaviors. For example, associations for those with case-level symptoms 3 to 4 times were most strongly attenuated by number of health conditions (32.1%), anxiolytic use (28.4%), lung function (24.6%), physical activity (23.9%), smoking (24.6%), antidepressant use (20.1%), diet (16.4%), pulse rate (12.7%), and adult social class (11.2%).
Conclusions and Relevance Lifetime accumulation of affective symptoms may be associated with an increased rate of mortality, with explanatory pathways dependent on the duration and timing of symptoms. Future research into causal pathways and potential points of intervention should consider affective symptom history