..Higher alcohol consumption (β=0.03, p<0.001), lower physical activity (β=0.002,p=001), smoking (β=1.58, p<0.001), men (p<0.001), African-Americans (p<0.001), impaired left ventricular relaxation (e´,β=-0.13, p=0.002), and worse diastolic function (E/e´,β=0.1, p=0.01) were associated with longitudinal increases in resting heart rate. We observed 268 cardiovascular disease and 74 heart failure events over a median of 26 years. In Cox models, baseline and temporal changes in resting heart rate were associated with higher risk of heart failure (hazard ratio (HR)=1.37 95% confidence interval (CI) [1.05-1.79] and HR=1.38 95%CI [1.02-1.86]) and a higher risk cardiovascular disease (HR=1.23 95%CI [1.07-1.42] and HR=1.23 95%CI [1.05-1.44]).
Baseline and temporal changes in resting heart rate in young adults were associated with incident heart failure and cardiovascular disease by mid-life. Contributory factors were associations between temporal increases in resting heart rate and early adult risk factors and subsequent cardiac dysfunction.