..The retina is a developmental extension of the brain and has been viewed as a window to evaluate AD-related pathology.
..Described herein is the utilization of our retinal hyperspectral imaging (rHSI) technique as a biomarker for identification of AD-related early pathological changes in the retina
The underlying principle is Rayleigh light scattering, which is expected from low-order Aβ aggregates present in early pathology
..The largest spectral deviation from control subjects, rHSI signature, was obtained at the MCI stage with MMSE scores ⩾22, suggesting higher sensitivity of this technique in early disease stages. The rHSI signature observed is unaffected by eye pathologies such as glaucoma and cataract. Age of the subjects minimally influenced the spectral signatures. The rHSI technique shows promise for detection of preclinical AD; it is conducted in a truly noninvasive manner, without application of an exogenous label, and is thus potentially suitable for population screening.