They were age 40.1 ± 5.7 years, mainly men, smokers, with a family history of CAD or hypercholesterolemia. At baseline presentation, 91.2% underwent coronary revascularization, predominantly for acute MI (78.8%). Over a follow-up of 20 years, one-third (n = 264) of patients presented with a total of 399 ischemic events, and 36% had at least a second recurrent event. MI was the most frequent first recurrent event (n = 131 of 264), mostly related to new coronary lesions (17.3% vs. 7.8%; p = 0.01; hazard ratio [HR]:1.45; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.09 to 1.93 for new vs. initial culprit lesion). All-cause death (n = 55; 6.3%) occurred at 8.4 years (median time). Ethnic origin (sub-Saharan African vs. Caucasian, adjusted hazard ratio [adjHR]: 1.95; 95% CI: 1.13 to 3.35; p = 0.02), inflammatory disease (adjHR: 1.58; 95% CI: 1.05 to 2.36; p = 0.03), and persistent smoking (adjHR: 2.32; 95% CI: 1.63 to 3.28; p < 0.01) were the strongest correlates of a first recurrent event. When considering all recurrent events, the same factors and Asian ethnicity predicted poor outcome, but persistent smoking had the greatest impact on prognosis.
Conclusions Premature CAD is an aggressive disease despite the currently recommended prevention measures, with high rates of recurrent events and mortality. Ethnicity and concomitant inflammatory disease are associated with poor prognoses, along with insufficient control of risk factors.